2019 Vol.2(2)

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Original Articles
A sand-production control system for gas production from clayey silt hydrate reservoirs
Yan-long Li, Neng-you Wu, Fu-long Ning, Gao-wei Hu, Chang-ling Liu, Chang-yin Dong, Jing-an Lu
2019, 2(2): 121-132. doi: 10.31035/cg2018081
[Abstract](2980) [FullText HTML] (714) [PDF 22210KB](211)
Sand production is a crucial problem during the process of extracting natural gas from hydrate reservoirs. To deal with sand-production problems systematically, a sand-production control system (SCS) is first proposed in this paper, specialized for pore-distributed clayey silt hydrate reservoirs. Secondly, a nodal system analysis method (NSAM) is applied to analyze the sand migration process during hydrate exploitation. The SCS is divided into three sub-systems, according to different sand migration mechanisms, and three key scientific problems and advances in SCS research in China Geological Survey are reviewed and analyzed. The maximum formation sanding rate, proper sand-control gravel size, and borehole blockage risk position were provided for clayey hydrate exploitation wells based on the SCS analysis. The SCS sub-systems are closely connected via bilateral coupling, and coordination of the sub-systems is the basis of maintaining formation stability and prolonging the gas production cycle. Therefore, contradictory mitigation measures between sand production and operational systems should be considered preferentially. Some novel and efficient hydrate exploitation methods are needed to completely solve the contradictions caused by sand production.
Characteristics and evaluation of Mesozoic source rocks in the southeastern East China Sea continental shelf
Ming-jian Wang, Guo-lin Xiao, Chang-qing Yang, Yan-qiu Yang, Xi Chen, Long Huang
2019, 2(2): 133-141. doi: 10.31035/cg2018079
[Abstract](2351) [FullText HTML] (309) [PDF 25912KB](45)
Source rocks are the material basis of oil and gas generation and determine the potential resources of exploration blocks and have important research value. This paper studies the lithology, thickness, and geochemistry of Mesozoic source rocks in the southeastern East China Sea continental shelf. The results show that the Mesozoic source rocks are mainly dark mudstone and coal-bearing strata. The total thickness of Lower–Middle Jurassic source rocks ranges from 100 m to 700 m, and that of Lower Cretaceous source rocks ranges from 50 m to 350 m. The overall thickness of Mesozoic source rocks is distributed in the NE direction and their thickness center is located in the Jilong Depression. The Lower–Middle Jurassic source rocks are mainly developed shallow marine dark mudstone and transitional coal measure strata. Those of the Lower Cretaceous are mainly mudstone of a fan delta front. Lower–Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks are dominated by type III kerogen, with Lower–Middle Jurassic hydrocarbon source rocks having high organic matter abundance and being medium–good hydrocarbon source rocks, while Lower Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks have relatively poor quality. From northwest to southeast, the vitrinite reflectance Ro of Mesozoic source rocks increases gradually. Source rocks in the study area are divided into three types. The first hydrocarbon-generating area is mainly located in the southeastern region of the study area, and the Jilong Depression is the hydrocarbon-generating center. The results of this study can provide a basis for exploration of Mesozoic oil and gas resources in the southeastern East China Sea continental shelf.
Two types of uranium mineralization in Gulcheru quartzite: Fracture-controlled in Ambakapalle area and litho-controlled in Tummalapalle area, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India
Sukanta Goswami, Pradeep Kumar Upadhyay, Bhaskaran Saravanan, V Natarajan, Mohan Babu Verma
2019, 2(2): 142-156. doi: 10.31035/cg2018099
[Abstract](1906) [FullText HTML] (268) [PDF 23045KB](34)
The Cuddapah Basin in southern India has a potential for uranium mineralization due to some favorable factors such as its temporal, stratigraphic and tectonic settings. Systematic exploration program conducted by the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) within the Cuddapah Basin resulting in the recognition of distinct types of uranium mineralization, viz., strata bound type, fracture/shear-controlled type and tabular type. The Gulcheru Formation which is the lowermost unit of the Cuddapah Basin is dominantly arenitic in nature. During the exploration works, a number of uranium anomalies were identified with dimensions ranging from 1 m to 1.5 km. Gulcheru quartzite hosted uranium mineralization is intermittent and inconsistent in nature. The anomalous outcrops are distributed over a strike length of ca. 60 km between Gandi in the SE and Ambakapallein the NW. Presently, two different types of uranium mineralization are characterized on the basis of field observations, mapping and structural interpretation, petro-mineralogy and geochemistry. Although the host rock is same for both types, the mechanism of uranium enrichment is totally different. The Ambakapalle uranium mineralization is controlled by fault zone and associated hydrothermal activity. Whereas, the Tummalapalle uranium mineralization is litho-controlled in nature influenced by suitable four ‘P’ factors, i.e., provenance, porosity-permeability, precipitation and preservation. The geochemical characterization of Gulcheru quartzite suggest a passive margin type of provenance setting. Petro-mineralogically the quartz arenite suggests enough textural as well as mineralogical maturity. Ambakapalle quartzite is slightly strained and deformed due to faulting. Analysis of selected samples recorded 0.01% to 0.048% U3O8 and <0.01% ThO2. Petrographic observation revealed that the anomalies were appeared due to secondary uranium minerals occurring as surficial encrustations, fracture filling and lesser irregular patches. Structural analysis suggests the mineralization along E-W trace slip fault is possibly consistent in sub-surface. Tummalapalle quartzite is relatively less deformed arenitic in nature with significant enrichment in MREE. The genetic models for the two types of mineralization is totally different.
Redefinition of Early Mesoproterozoic (1800–1600 Ma) stratigraphy in the northern Kongling area, China: The nucleus of Yangtze Craton and its tectonic significance
Xiao-ming Zhao, Xiao-fei Qiu, Zhi-hui An, Nian-wen Wu, Li Tian, Yun-xu Wei, Tuo Jiang
2019, 2(2): 157-168. doi: 10.31035/cg2018085
[Abstract](2097) [FullText HTML] (445) [PDF 22316KB](54)
The Wujiatai Formation, which is well exposed in Huangjiatai-Xichahe region of the northern Kongling area of central Yangtze Craton, is a suite of epimetamorphic conglomerates to pebbly sandstones to fine sandstone-dolostones deposited in littoral-carbonate platform facies. The formation has angular unconformity contacts with both the overlying Neoproterozoic Nantuo Formation and the underlying Paleoproterozoic Huanglianghe Formation complex. Detrital zircons from metafine sandstones of the lower Wujiatai Formation have ages ranging from 3377–1828 Ma, with the youngest zircons dating to about 1828 Ma. In addition, whole-rock Pb-Pb isochron ages from dolostones in the upper Wujiatai Formation yield an age of 1718±230 Ma. These dates constrain the depositional age of the Wujiatai Formation between 1800 Ma and 1600 Ma. These are the earliest Mesoproterozoic sedimentary records reported in the Kongling region, and fill the gaps in Early Mesoproterozoic stratigraphy in Yangtze Craton. Histograms of detrital zircon ages for the Wujiatai Formation reveal four major peaks at 2039 Ma, 2691 Ma, 2966 Ma and 3377 Ma, which is consistent with the ages of the basement rocks that underlie the center of Yangtze Craton, indicating that sediment provenance is mainly from the Kongling complex. The lower Wujiatai Formation mainly consists of clastic rocks, whereas the upper Wujiatai Formation consists of dolostones. This stratigraphic change implies a deepening sequence in an expanding basin with an initial cratonic rifting tectonic setting, corresponding to the initial breakup of the Columbia super-continent in Yangtze Craton.
Comparison of detrital mineral compositions between stream sediments of the Yangtze River (Changjiang) and the Yellow River (Huanghe) and their provenance implication
Zhong-bo Wang, Ri-hui Li, Shou-ye Yang, Feng-long Bai, Xi Mei, Jian Zhang, Kai Lu
2019, 2(2): 169-178. doi: 10.31035/cg2018065
[Abstract](2297) [FullText HTML] (655) [PDF 21844KB](86)
A comparative comparative study on the detrital mineral composition of stream sediments of the Yangtze River (Changjiang) and Yellow River (Huanghe) shows that, light minerals of the Yangtze River basin were mainly quartz, feldspar, and detritus, the compositional characteristics of light minerals differed among tributaries, the main stream had a generally higher maturity index than tributaries; heavy mineral content tended to decrease progressively from the upper stream to lower stream of the Yangtze River, the primary assemblage was magnetite-hornblende-augite-garnet-epidote, and diagnostic minerals of different river basins were capable of indicating the nature and distribution of the source rock. Detrital mineral assemblages in sediments of tributaries and the main stream of the Yellow River were basically similar, Primary heavy mineral assemblage was opaque mineral-garnet-epidote-carbonate mineral and alteration mineral. Variations in the contents of garnet, opaque mineral, and hornblende mainly reflected the degree of sedimentary differentiation in suspended sediment and the hydrodynamic intensity of a drainage system. The heavy mineral differentiation index F revealed sedimentary differentiation of diagnostic detrital mineral composition due to changes in regional hydrodynamic intensity and can serve as an indicator for studying the dynamic sedimentary environment of a single-provenance river and the degree of sedimentary differentiation of its detrital minerals. Changes in detrital mineral content of the Yellow River was not completely controlled by provenance but reflected gravity sorting of the detrital mineral due to variations in the ephemeral river hydrodynamic intensity and sedimentary environment, however the index changing of Yangtze River were mainly influenced by the complex sediment sources. Therefore caution must be exercised in using the detrital mineral composition of marginal sea to determine the contribution of the Yangtze River and Yellow River.
Stretching correction for amplitude-preserving vector wavefield reverse-time migration
Jia-jia Yang, Bing-shou He, Hua-ning Xu, Jun Pan, Jun Liu, Hong Liu
2019, 2(2): 179-188. doi: 10.31035/cg2018071
[Abstract](2300) [FullText HTML] (614) [PDF 23819KB](25)
The migration of multi-wave seismic data is aimed at obtaining the P- and S-wave imaging results of the amplitude preserving. But the P- and S-wave stretching effect produced by the reverse time migration of the elastic wave equation will not only reduce the vertical resolution of the migration results and the amplitude preserving of the large reflection angle. In this paper, the reverse time migration technique of amplitude preserving vector wave-field separating is used. Based on the analysis of the stretch mechanism and the influencing factors of stretch magnitude, the paper gave the stretch correcting factors. Then, realize the stretch correction method at the time that after the reverse extrapolation and before the imaging by solving the problem which is how to calculate the P-wave and Ps-wave propagation directions of imaging points at different times. The stretch correction method can improve the vertical resolution and amplitude fidelity of the imaging results and provide high fidelity input data for seismic data interpretation and inversion.
Analysis of formation and slope stability in Caofeidian Channel in Bohai Bay
Hong-xian Chu, Sai Mei, Xiao-hui Gao, Zhong-hua Fang, Jing Feng
2019, 2(2): 189-197. doi: 10.31035/cg2018057
[Abstract](1558) [FullText HTML] (253) [PDF 24309KB](37)
In this paper, by studying bathymetric survey and shallow seismic detection data over multiple periods of history, the authors outline the geomorphic features of the Caofeidian Channel. The results of our studies indicate that the channel at the front end is dominated by erosion. The maximum water depth reaches 42.2 m, which sets the highest record for the water depth in Bohai Bay; the authors preliminarily conclude that the formation of the early channel occurred because the subsidence rate of the deep structure is slightly smaller than the deposition rate of the upper strata, and the Caofeidian Channel has existed for a long time, over 20 ka. The trending of the channel experienced a transition from the NS to the NE and then NW direction; the authors conclude that endogenic and exogenic processes, such as geological structures, the evolution of the ancient Luanhe River Delta, marine hydrodynamics, and human activity, jointly control the development and evolution of the geographic system in the Caofeidian sea area. The slope stabilities under the extreme conditions of a heavy storm and an earthquake are analyzed by performing simulations.
Advances in the microbial mineralization of seafloor hydrothermal systems
Le Zhang, Zhi-lei Sun, Wei Geng, Hong Cao, Yi-chao Qin, Cui-ling Xu, Xian-rong Zhang, Xin Li, Xi-lin Zhang, Hui-ling Song
2019, 2(2): 227-237. doi: 10.31035/cg2018087
[Abstract](1857) [FullText HTML] (262) [PDF 22040KB](41)
Research on the biomineralization in modern seafloor hydrothermal systems is conducive to unveiling the mysteries of the early Earth’s history, life evolution, subsurface biosphere and microbes in outer space. The hydrothermal biomineralization has become a focus of geo-biological research in the last decade, since the introduction of the microelectronic technology and molecular biology technology. Microorganisms play a critical role in the formations of oxide/hydroxides (e.g. Fe, Mn, S and Si oxide/hydroxides) and silicates on the seafloor hydrothermal systems globally. Furthermore, the biomineralization of modern chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms is regarded as a nexus between the geosphere and the biosphere, and as an essential complement of bioscience and geology. In this paper, we summarize the research progress of hydrothermal biomineralization, including the biogenic minerals, the microbial biodiversity, and also the interactions between minerals and microorganisms. In the foreseeable future, the research on hydrothermal biomineralization will inspire the development of geosciences and biosciences and thus enrich our knowledge of the Earth’s history, life evolution and even astrobiology.
Review Articles
Development and future prospects of quantitative mineral assessment in China
Shi-hong Zhang, Ke-yan Xiao, Jian-ping Chen, Jie Xiang, Ning Cui, Xiao-nan Wang
2019, 2(2): 198-210. doi: 10.31035/cg2018097
[Abstract](2146) [FullText HTML] (264) [PDF 21934KB](62)
Mineral potential assessment at the Earth’s surface has been an important research for geoscientists around the world in the past five decades. The fundamental aspects of mineral assessment at different scales can be associated with the following tasks, e.g., mineral potential mapping and estimation of mineral resources. This paper summarized the history and development in terms of theories, methods technologies and software platforms for quantitative assessment of mineral resources in China, e.g. comprehensive information methodology, geological anomaly, three-component quantitative prediction method, 5P ore-finding area, integrated information assessment method, nonlinear process modeling and fractals, three dimensional mineral potential mapping, etc. At last, to discuss the future of quantitative mineral assessment in an era of big data including platform for 3D visualization, analysis and sharing, new methods and protocols for data cleaning, information enhancement, information integration, and uncertainties and multiple explanations of multi-information.
The dynamic economic evaluation method of shale gas resources
Gang-yi Zhai, Xiang-lin Chen, Xiang-hua Xia, Zhi Zhou, Tian-xu Guo, Guo-heng Liu, Rui-han Yuan
2019, 2(2): 211-217. doi: 10.31035/cg2018096
[Abstract](6996) [FullText HTML] (1732) [PDF 21583KB](42)
At present, most shale gas exploration and development areas in China are difficult to provide sufficient and effective production data to support economic evaluation, since they are still in the initial stage of low exploration level. In addition, ecological and environmental factors are not taken into account in the evaluation process, which does not meet the needs of green energy development of China. Aiming at above problems, the dynamic economic evaluation method of shale gas resources based on calculus principle is proposed. The Arps hyperbolic decreasing curve model will be used in the evaluation of single shale gas well production, which can evaluate single well production of shale gas by fitting the existing dynamic production data to generate the production decreasing curve. Therefore, the variation regularity of the cumulative production of single well shale gas within the study area can be obtained by the model mentioned above. According to the variation regularity of the cumulative production obtained from the Arps hyperbolic decreasing curve model, the recovery period of single well cost, ultimate economic life and the ultimate economic resource can be evaluated dynamically by analyzing the variation regularity of the cumulative sales revenue and cumulative input cost of single shale gas well. Then the evaluation result can be further extend to the whole evaluation areas, in order to analyze shale gas resources’ economic value in evaluation regions under different shale gas price conditions. The results of the above evaluation methods are not only conducive to improving the economic benefits of relative shale gas development enterprises, but also provide a basis for the national energy strategy deployment.
Characteristics of helium accumulation in the Guanzhong Basin, China
Min Dong, Zong-xiu Wang, Hui Dong, Li-cheng Ma, Lin-yan Zhang
2019, 2(2): 218-226. doi: 10.31035/cg2018103
[Abstract](1857) [FullText HTML] (266) [PDF 21879KB](31)
Guanzhong Basin is located in the transitional zone between the Qinling orogenic belt and the Ordos plateau. Analyses of drill and geothermal wells depict that the Guanzhong Basin has abundant gas, and its major source rocks are the U-rich granites. In this study, the granitoid intrusive samples were collected from the Huashan, Baoji, Muhuguan rocks in Guanzhong Basin. A micro laser Raman spectrum examination was used to measure the composition of inclusion in the granite quartz fissures. The results depict that the inclusions include both gas-liquid and H2O-NaCl-CO2 inclusions and that their composition primarily includes H2O and CO2, with small amounts of CH4, H2 and H2S. These inclusions can be classified into nearly-primary, early secondary, and late secondary inclusions, which have homogenization temperatures of greater than 430 °C, 330–370 °C and 170–230 °C, respectively, based on the inclusion measurements. Additionally, the apatite fission-track investigations of six samples, which were collected from the granites at Huashan, Baoji rocks and the southern margin of Muhuguan along with the Cretaceous Sigou Formation sandstones that are located in the northwestern margin of the Guanzhong Basin reveal that the northern Guanzhong Basin began to receive deposits as early as 84–69 Ma. This period was accompanied by the rapid uplift of the Qinling orogenic belt, which was followed by an uplift of the southern basin margin and the Qinling orogenic belt from 44–28 Ma. The authors obtained an age histogram and a probability density distribution of three sample points. The results show that the age spectra of the zircons in the Cretaceous Sigou Formation sandstones can be divided into four tectonic events. Combined with the ages of apatite fission tracks and zircon, the Guanzhong Basin has experienced five tectonic stages as follows: 28–84 Ma, 170–260 Ma, 280–510 Ma, 610–1200 Ma, and 1210–2870 Ma. Using the thermal chronology constraints, inclusion composition analyses, which include the homogenization temperature measurements, and regional burial history, this paper conclude that the early secondary inclusions are primarily composed of CO2 and N2, whereas the late secondary inclusions are composed of CH4. Furthermore, this paper identify two periods of reservoir accumulation, out of which the later period is assumed to be the main accumulation period. Therefore, the period of the formation of the late secondary inclusion in the Guanzhong Basin and the Miocene era is observed to overlap with the main helium reservoir accumulation period.
Short Communications
Re-Os age report of pyrrhotite in the Dhi Samir amprophyre-type copper-nickel sulfide deposit in Yemen
Li-yan Zuo, Rong-fu Pei, Hui-feng Wang
2019, 2(2): 238-239. doi: 10.31035/cg2018107
[Abstract](3526) [FullText HTML] (1539) [PDF 21590KB](66)
Multiphase porphyry intrusions in the Sungun copper deposit, NW Iran: Evidence from SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating
Hong-rui Zhang, Zeng-qian Hou, Tian-nan Yang, Zhi-ming Yang, Jian-lin Chen, Mehraj Aghazadeh
2019, 2(2): 240-242. doi: 10.31035/cg2018102
[Abstract](3464) [FullText HTML] (1504) [PDF 21768KB](88)
Discovery of Late Cretaceous-Paleocene faulted basins developed on the Yandang Low Uplift, East China Sea Shelf Basin
Chuan-sheng Yang, Chang-qing Yang, Lu-ning Shang, Zhong-hui Yan, Yan-qiu Yang
2019, 2(2): 243-244. doi: 10.31035/cg2018106
[Abstract](2354) [FullText HTML] (1137) [PDF 21828KB](36)
First report of TSR origin minerals filled in anhydrite dissolved pores in southeastern Ordos Basin
Li-hong Liu, Chun-lian Wang, Xing-min Zhao
2019, 2(2): 245-247. doi: 10.31035/cg2018104
[Abstract](2214) [FullText HTML] (717) [PDF 21637KB](37)
News and Highlights
The Report of China Mineral Resource Exploration, 2018
2019, 2(2): 248-250. doi: 10.31035/cg2018101
[Abstract](2687) [FullText HTML] (1896) [PDF 21438KB](37)
The Report of China Mineral Resource Reserves, 2018
2019, 2(2): 251-253. doi: 10.31035/cg2018100
[Abstract](2517) [FullText HTML] (1788) [PDF 21406KB](13)
Introduction to Key Laboratory of Gas Hydrate, Ministry of Natural Resources
2019, 2(2): 254-256. doi: 10.31035/cg2018098
[Abstract](1247) [FullText HTML] (804) [PDF 21549KB](15)
The Key Laboratory of Coastal Wetland Biogeosciences
2019, 2(2): 257-258. doi: 10.31035/cg2018105
[Abstract](1177) [FullText HTML] (794) [PDF 21660KB](5)
Editorial Committee of China Geology
2019, 2(2): 259-259.
[Abstract](376) [FullText HTML] (258) [PDF 1564KB](21)