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Original Articles
Sedimentary lithofacies characteristics and sweet-spot interval characterization of the Sinian Doushantuo Formation in Upper Yangtze Platform, South China
Yu-fang Wang, Gang-yi Zhai, Yong-chao Lu, Yi-quan Ma, Juan Li, Guo-heng Liu, Yun-xiao Zhang
2019, 2(3): 261-275. doi: 10.31035/cg2018119
[Abstract](200) [FullText HTML] (115) [PDF 16058KB](84)
Abstract:
The Sinian Doushantuo Formation is the oldest shale gas reservoir discovered in the world, which contains good shale gas shows as the Eyangye-1 and Zidi-1 wells in the Yichang Region of western Hubei province, China. The shales in the Doushantuo Formation feature considerable thickness (135 m), high gas content (4.83 m3/t) and high fragile mineral content (up to 75%). Due to the influences of the sedimentary environment, the shale reservoirs here have high dolomitic content (54%) and abruptly changes in vertical lithofacies. Moreover, the characteristics of the shale sweet-spot differ significantly from that in the Wufeng Formation and Longmaxi Formation in southeast Sichuan Basin. A high-resolution sequence stratigraphic correlation was performed on the shales of the Doushantuo Formation at the Eyangye-1 well, Zidi-1 well, Zidi-2 well and some outcrop profiles in Yichang area for the identification of their sedimentary microfacies characteristics. A comprehensive comparative analysis was made by incorporating the elemental geochemistry, wireline and mud logging data of the well to further identify the sweet-spot interval therein. With the analysis of Eyangye-1 well, the sweet-spot interval of the Doushantuo Formation is 3360−3408 m, of which sedimentary microfacies is deepwater reduced environment with many pyrite laminaes, and the TOC is high to 3.42%, the Ro is 3.3%, the organic and matrix pore are well developed and the aperture more than 50 nm, the porosity is 2.7%, the desorption gas content average is 2.16%, and the main mineral is dolomitic (54%) and siliceous quartz (21%). Additionally, these parameters combined with previous studies will shed light on evaluating and characterizing the layers therein, also provide referential geological data for the following exploration and development activities of this shale system.
Stability analysis of submarine slopes in the area of the test production of gas hydrate in the South China Sea
Yao-hong Shi, Qian-yong Liang, Jiang-pin Yang, Qing-meng Yuan, Xue-min Wu, Liang Kong
2019, 2(3): 276-286. doi: 10.31035/cg2018122
[Abstract](98) [FullText HTML] (75) [PDF 21252KB](19)
Abstract:
In this paper, the mechanical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments (GHBS) were summarized and the instability mechanism of submarine hydrate-bearing slope (SHBS) was analyzed under the background of the test production of gas hydrate in the northern part of the South China Sea. The strength reduction finite element method (SRFEM) was introduced to the stability analysis of submarine slopes for the safety of the test production. Two schemes were designed to determine the physical and mechanical parameters of four target wells. Through the division of the hydrate dissociation region and the design of four working conditions, the range and degree of hydrate dissociation at different stages during the test production were simulated. Based on the software ABAQUS, 37 FEM models of SHBS were set up to analyze and assess the stability of the submarine slopes in the area of the test production. Necessary information such as safety factors, deformation, and displacement were obtained at different stages and under different working conditions. According to the calculation results, the submarine slope area is stable before the test production, and the safety factors almost remains the same during and after the test production. All these indicate that the test production has no obvious influence on the area of the test production and the submarine slopes in the area are stable during and after the test production.
Geochemical characteristics and genetic type of a lithium ore (mineralized) body in the central Yunnan Province, China
Bai-dong Sun, Jun-ping Liu, Xiao-hu Wang, Yan Dao, Gui-xiang Xu, Xiao-zhuang Cui, Xue-qing Guan, Wei Wang, Dong-hu Song
2019, 2(3): 287-300. doi: 10.31035/cg2018118
[Abstract](730) [FullText HTML] (139) [PDF 15654KB](30)
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Lithium ore (mineralized) bodies in the area A of central Yunnan Province belong to a sedimentary-type, which are controlled by stratum. The studied ore (mineralized) body mainly occurs in the Middle Permian Liangshan Formation. This work described the morphology, structures, main ore types and geochemical characteristics of this ore body in detail, and discussed the ore-forming material source, occurrence state of lithium and the formation mechanism of lithium ores to clarify the prospecting marks. In the further exploration, comprehensive evaluation of the lithium resources of known bauxite ore bodies in central Yunnan Province should be strengthened, and the exploration of hidden lithium ore bodies should be intensified in order to discover more large and super-large lithium orebodies, which will fill the gap of the national demand for lithium resources, and promote the national defense construction and new energy industry development.
Sedimentological sequence and depositional evolutionary model of Lower Triassic carbonate rocks in the South Yellow Sea Basin
Yu-xi Zhang, Jian-wen Chen, Jiang-yu Zhou, Yong Yuan
2019, 2(3): 301-314. doi: 10.31035/cg2018113
[Abstract](89) [FullText HTML] (50) [PDF 22871KB](23)
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Based on well logging and seismic data, combined with a comparative analysis of drilling data in the Lower Yangtze region, the sequence stratigraphic framework of the Qinglong Formation was established and divided into four third-order sequences. Each sequence is mainly composed of the transgress system tract (TST) and the high-stand system tract (HST). According to the lithology, logging curve and seismic reflection structure, the sedimentary filling characteristics and evolution law for the sequence are analyzed. The results show that each sequence is dominated by a half-cycle decline of sea level, and the rise-fall of sea level controls the distribution and evolution of sedimentary systems within the sequence. During the relative sea-level rise, sedimentation rates slow down and muddy sediments are developed. The characteristics of condensing intervals on the flooding surface are very obvious, and continental shelf and open platform deposition are mainly developed. During the relative decline of sea level, the thickness of sediments increased. The main developments were restricted platform and platform shoal environment, and locally developed evaporation platform environment.
Reconstruction of phytoplankton productivity and community structure in the South Yellow Sea
Xi Mei, Ri-hui Li, Xun-hua Zhang, Zhong-bo Wang, Yong Zhang
2019, 2(3): 315-324. doi: 10.31035/cg2018091
[Abstract](75) [FullText HTML] (49) [PDF 15569KB](7)
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The sedimentary environment and ecological system in the South Yellow Sea (SYS) changed dramatically due to sea level change caused by glacial-interglacial cycles. The authors report the use of marine biomarkers (brassicasterol, dinosterol and C37 alkenones) and terrigenous biomarkers (C28+C30+C32 n-alkanols) in core DLC70-3 from the SYS to reconstruct the variation in the phytoplankton productivity and community structure and possible mechanisms during the middle Pleistocene. The results show that the primary productivity and that of single algae presented a consistent trend for the whole core during the middle Pleistocene, which was high during interglacial periods and low during glacial periods, with the highest being in marine isotope stage (MIS) 5–9 and MIS 19–21. The main reason is that the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) carried much of high temperature, high salinity water into the SYS, causing upwelling and vertical mixing and stirring, which increased the nutrient supply in the photosynthetic layer. The phytoplankton community structure mainly showed an increase in the relative content of haptophytes in MIS 5–9 and MIS 19–21, while the relative content of diatoms and dinoflagellates decreased; there was no evidence for a haptophyte content in other stages. The results reveal a shift from a coccolitho-phorid-dominated community during MIS 5–9 and MIS 19–21 to a diatom-dominated community during the other stages, mainly as a result of surface salinity variation, attributed to the invasion of the YSWC during high sea level periods.
Temporal and spatial evolution of surface sediments characteristics in the Dagu River estuary and their dynamic response mechanism
Xiao-ying Chen, Da-hai Liu, Ping Yin, Jin-qing Liu, Ke Cao, Fei Gao
2019, 2(3): 325-332. doi: 10.31035/cg2018092
[Abstract](67) [FullText HTML] (42) [PDF 15206KB](2)
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Based on the 39 surface sediment samples collected in the flood season and the dry season in 2012 respectively and the measured hydrological data in October 2012, the sediment grain size characteristics has been analyzed and the response mechanism of surface sediments to estuarine hydrodynamics was revealed by calculating the range of waves and tidal currents. The results show that: (1) The grain size of the surface sediment samples decreased gradually from land to sea in the flood season. The fine sediment was redistributed under marine hydrodynamics in the dry season and the sediments showed coarser tendency ingeneral; (2) tidal current stirring sediment was very obvious in Dagu River estuary area, and wave stirring sediments mainly occurred in the tidal flat area and estuary sand bar area; (3) in the flood season, surface sediment sat the estuary were transported towards south and southeast. In the dry season, surface sediments were transported towards southwest at the north area of Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, and sediments were transported towards northeast area at the south of Jiaozhou Bay Bridge.
Large borehole with multi-lateral branches: A novel solution for exploitation of clayey silt hydrate
Yan-long Li, Yi-zhao Wan, Qiang Chen, Jia-xin Sun, Neng-you Wu, Gao-wei Hu, Fu-long Ning, Pei-xiao Mao
2019, 2(3): 333-341. doi: 10.31035/cg2018082
[Abstract](243) [FullText HTML] (95) [PDF 16139KB](26)
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Raising the in situ decomposition rate of natural gas hydrate and increasing the decomposition contact area are two main ways to raise the productivity of hydrate. An exploitation technique based on large borehole with multi-lateral branches (LB & MB) was proposed in this paper. This technique is mainly intended for the clayey silt hydrate reservoir in the South China Sea, and its main purpose is to alleviate the sand output from formation for maintaining the stability of the reservoir and to greatly increase the gas productivity of the reservoir. In this paper, the following aspects were mainly expounded: definition of the basic geometric parameters for layout of multi-lateral branches in clayey silt hydrate reservoir, simulation of the stimulation effect of a typical well profile with two branches, and prediction and simulation of the reservoir failure risk in a well profile with eight branches. The results show that the LB & MB effectively improves the flow field in the formation, raises the productivity of the reservoir and may also help to decrease the produced water-gas ratio (WGR). When the lateral branches spacing is too small, the failure zones around adjacent lateral branches overlap each other, possibly causing reservoir failure in a larger range. Therefore, the geometric parameters of multi-lateral branches depend on the dual control of the productivity and geotechnical risk factor of reservoir. Further study is being carried out, so as to obtain the optimal combination of parameters of multi-lateral branches.
Concealed porphyry delineation based on nonlinear three-dimensional density-difference inversion: An example in the Beiya mine area, Western Yunnan, China
Jian Yang, Sheng-xian Liang, Qiao Wang, Wei Zhang, Jing Guo, Guo-zhong Liao
2019, 2(3): 342-353. doi: 10.31035/cg2018117
[Abstract](69) [FullText HTML] (45) [PDF 17732KB](6)
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Intermediate acid-complex rock masses with low-density characteristics are the most important prospecting sign in the Beiya area, of western Yunnan province, and provide a physical basis for good gravity exploration. It is usually difficult to obtaining solutions in connection with actual geological situations due to the ambiguity of the conventional gravity-processing results and lack of deep constraints. Thus, the three-dimensional (3D) inversion technology is considered as the main channel for reducing the number of solutions and improving the vertical resolution at the current stage. The current study starts from a model test and performs nonlinear 3D density-difference inversion called " model likelihood exploration”, which performs 3D inversion imaging and inversion of the known model while considering the topographic effects. The inversion results are highly consistent with those of the known models. Simultaneously, we consider the Beiya gold mine in Yunnan as an example. The nonlinear 3D density-difference inversion technology, which is restricted by geological information, is explored to obtain the 3D density body structure below 5 km in the mine area, and the 3D structure of the deep and concealed rock masses are obtained using the density constraints of the intermediate-acid-complex rock masses. The results are well consistent with the surface geological masses and drilling-controlled deep geological masses. The model test and examples both show that the 3D density-difference nonlinear inversion technology can reduce inversion ambiguity, improve resolution, optimize the inversion results, and realize " transparency” in deeply concealed rock masses in ore-concentrated areas,which is useful in guiding the deep ore prospecting.
Influencing factors and evaluation application of regional crustal stability in the Bohai Strait
Sai Mei, Hong-xian Chu, Ling-yu Dong, Zhong-hua Fang, Pan-feng Li, Fei-fei Zhang, Rui Shan, Tie-hu Zhao
2019, 2(3): 354-363. doi: 10.31035/cg2018075
[Abstract](67) [FullText HTML] (51) [PDF 15505KB](3)
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Due to the extremely complex geological conditions in the Bohai Strait, active faults is very developed and earthquake activity occurs frequently. It is of great importance to evaluate the regional crustal stability for the planning and construction of the Trans-straits Passage. In this study, the authors carry out the evaluation by means of buffer analysis, topology analysis and overlay analysis based on ArcGIS software. The evaluation mainly analyzed six assessment factors of Bohai Strait including neotectonic activity, active faults distribution, seismicity, tectonic stress fields, Bouguer gravity anomaly and geological disasters. In brief, the crustal stability of the eastern North Yellow Sea Basin is best, while that of the Bohai Basin and southwest Bohai Strait is poor. Meanwhile, small and frequent earthquakes in the southern Strait and geological disasters developed in the northern and central Strait such as tidal ridge and shallow gas which may adversely impact on the Trans-straits Passage construction.
Review Articles
Stromatolite characteristics of Mesoproterozoic Shennongjia Group in the northern margin of Yangtze Block, China
Hong-wei Kuang, Zheng-xiu Fan, Yong-qing Liu, Nan Peng, Zhi-cai Zhu, Zhen-rui Yang, Zhi-xian Wang, Hui-liang Yu, Quan Zhong
2019, 2(3): 364-381. doi: 10.31035/cg2018115
[Abstract](86) [FullText HTML] (49) [PDF 16886KB](50)
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Mesoproterozoic Shennongjia Group in Shennongjia Area can be divided into three subgroups in ascender order. Of which the lower subgroup includes Yingwodong, Dayanping, Macaoyuan, Luanshigou, Dawokeng and Kuangshishan formations; the middle subgroup is formed by Yemahe, Wenshuihe and Shicaohe formations; the upper subgroup consists of Songziyuan and Wagangxi formations. Stromatolites developed very well in the carbonate rocks of each subgroup in Shennongjia Group. Based on descriptions of stromatolites macrotypes and their characteristics, this paper studied the formation environments, discussed the relationship among types, sizes, abundance of stromatolites and sedimentary environment, and established the formation and development pattern of stromatolites. As a result, this research also reveals the paleoenvironment and paleoclimate during the period of the Shennongjia Group deposited, which is beneficial to the study of paleoenvironment, paleogeography and paleoclimate, stratigraphic succession and regional correlation of the northern edge of Yangtze block. Stromatolites of Shennongjia Group are mainly conical, columnar, domal, wavy, stratiform and stromatolite reefs. The columnar and conical stromatolites are well developed. Conical stromatolites are mainly monomers, with a variety of pyramidal types, ranging in diameter from a few millimeters to several meters and formed in the high energy subtidal zone and tidal lagoon environment. Most of the columnar stromatolites are medium to small sizes implied a wide and gentle slope environment at that time. Stratiform (including wavy) stromatolites are larger scales and extends far away and distributed most widely in almost every horizon in the carbonate rocks. Stratiform stromatolites can be formed in low energy environments such as subtidal and intertidal zones and supratidal belts. Wavy stromatolites often developed in the hydrodynamic energy condition from weak energy intertidal zone gradually strengthened to the below of the high energy supratidal. Although stromatolite reefs can be a single or multiform combination, they developed mainly consisted of laminar or small walled columnar and large domal stromatolites. Shicaohe Formation also partially developed large domical stromatolites, the depositional environment is from the upper intertidal to supratidal zone. Stromatolite in Shennongjia Group usually appears as a combination of " Stratiform (wavy)-dome-columnar-coniform” or " stratiform-dome-coniform-columnar-dome-stratiform” vertieally, which represents the seawater depth from shallower to deeper or from shallow to deep and then to shallow again. These phenomenons generally reflected a stable sea level and companied with a high frequency oscillation. Comprehensive researches on the stratigraphy, sedimentary facies, sedimentary environment and the stromatolite types and their characteristics in the Shennongjia Group indicated that the Shennongjia Area is located on a gentle slope of carbonate platform in the passive continental edge, generally, i.e., one of warm and humid climate shallow water zone or/and a cold-drought climate, and had been experienced with eustatic cycles during the Shennongjia Group deposited.
Regional gravity survey and application in oil and gas exploration in China
Ming-hua Zhang, Ji-hua Qiao, Geng-xin Zhao, Xue-yi Lan
2019, 2(3): 382-390. doi: 10.31035/cg2018108
[Abstract](61) [FullText HTML] (48) [PDF 37176KB](22)
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Ground gravity survey for regional structure unit delineation and oil and gas exploration in China is addressed in this paper with examples. Gravity survey scales, coverage, technical regulations and achievements at the national level are introduced, including data processing and anomaly interpretation techniques. Bouguer anomalies of terrestrial territories of China and classification of anomalous feature zones are also described; they are well correlated with lithotectonical boundaries, fault zones, and unexposed igneous plutons. Recent study results of petroliferous sedimentary basins are presented as well, including concealed boundaries and major structures of large basins. It is concluded that gravity survey is the most effective and economic method in unveiling unexposed and deep-seated structures, targeting and delineating oil and gas-bearing sedimentary basins, and locating main trap structures within prolific basins in early stage of exploration in China. Suggestions for improving exploration of both conventional and unconventional oil and gas reservoirs in China are also given in the paper.
Research Advances
Zircon U-Pb ages of the two-periods magmatism from the Xiuwacu Mo-W-Cu deposit, northwest Yunnan, China
Yong-gao Huang, Chang-li Xiong, Xiao-chuan Jia, Xue-jun Yang, Gai Luo
2019, 2(3): 391-392. doi: 10.31035/cg2018110
[Abstract](80) [FullText HTML] (57) [PDF 14495KB](9)
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New zircon U–Pb ages of the Xinghuadukou Group, Xing’an block and its geological implications
Zi-jie Wu, Long-wei Qiu, Hai-peng Wang, Mi-shan Zhong, Pei-long Cui
2019, 2(3): 393-395. doi: 10.31035/cg2018111
[Abstract](81) [FullText HTML] (55) [PDF 15307KB](8)
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A mine drainage treatment system for AMD in remediation of metal sulfide mines
Shi-Tian Hou, Jing-Yi Cai, Ke-Yan Tan, Hong Yang, Xin Hu, Zhe Wang, Xin Yuan
2019, 2(3): 396-397. doi: 10.31035/cg2018112
[Abstract](65) [FullText HTML] (32) [PDF 14618KB](3)
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A new-type sampler using to collect undisturbed samples of shallow drilling sediment core in the coastal wetland geological surveys
Guang-ming Zhao, Si-yuan Ye, Hong-ming Yuan, Shi-xiong Yang, Lei He, Edward A. Laws
2019, 2(3): 398-399. doi: 10.31035/cg2018109
[Abstract](50) [FullText HTML] (30) [PDF 14575KB](0)
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News and Highlights
Promoting high-level cooperation in geosciences and assisting high-quality development of mining: “Belt and Road” Forum for International Geoscience Cooperation and Mining Investment was held in Xi’an, China
2019, 2(3): 400-402. doi: 10.31035/cg2018121
[Abstract](42) [FullText HTML] (35) [PDF 14628KB](1)
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Deepest deep-hole integrated geophysical observation system has successfully installed
2019, 2(3): 403-404. doi: 10.31035/cg2018120
[Abstract](59) [FullText HTML] (38) [PDF 14565KB](2)
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Editorial Committee of China Geology
2019, 2(3): 405-406.
[Abstract](8) [FullText HTML] (3) [PDF 3565KB](5)
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