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To accelerate the achievement of China’s carbon neutrality goal and to study the factors affecting the geologic CO2 storage in the Ordos Basin, China’s National Key R&D Programs propose to select the Chang 6 oil reservoir of the Yanchang Formation in the Ordos Basin as the target reservoir to conduct the geologic carbon capture and storage (CCS) of 100000 t per year. By applying the basic theories of disciplines such as seepage mechanics, multiphase fluid mechanics, and computational fluid mechanics and quantifying the amounts of CO2 captured in gas and dissolved forms, this study investigated the effects of seven factors that influence the CO2 storage capacity of reservoirs, namely reservoir porosity, horizontal permeability, temperature, formation stress, the ratio of vertical to horizontal permeability, capillary pressure, and residual gas saturation. The results show that the sensitivity of the factors affecting the gas capture capacity of CO2 decreases in the order of formation stress, temperature, residual gas saturation, horizontal permeability, and porosity. Meanwhile, the sensitivity of the factors affecting the dissolution capture capacity of CO2 decreases in the order of formation stress, residual gas saturation, temperature, horizontal permeability, and porosity. The sensitivity of the influencing factors can serve as the basis for carrying out a reasonable assessment of sites for future CO2 storage areas and for optimizing the design of existing CO2 storage areas. The sensitivity analysis of the influencing factors will provide basic data and technical support for implementing geologic CO2 storage and will assist in improving geologic CO2 storage technologies to achieve China’s carbon neutralization goal.
Hot dry rock (HDR) is a kind of clean energy with significant potential. Since the 1970s, the United States, Japan, France, Australia, and other countries have attempted to conduct several EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) projects to extract thermal energy by breaking through key technologies. However, up to now, the development of HDR is still in the research, development, and demonstration stage. An HDR exploration borehole (with 236°C at a depth of 3705 m) was drilled into Triassic granite in the Gonghe Basin in northwest China in 2017. Subsequently, China Geological Survey (CGS) launched the HDR resources exploration and production demonstration project in 2019. After three years of efforts, a sequence of significant technological breakthroughs have been made, including the genetic model of deep heat sources, directional drilling and well completion in high-temperature hard rocks, large-scale reservoir stimulation, reservoir characterization, and productivity evaluation, reservoir connectivity and flow circulation, efficient thermoelectric conversion, monitoring, and geological risk assessment, etc. Then the whole-process technological system for HDR exploration and production has been preliminarily established accordingly. The first power generation test was completed in November 2021. The results of this project will provide scientific support for HDR development and utilization in the future.
To obtain the characteristics of the gas hydrate reservoirs at GMGS3-W19, extensive geophysical logging data and cores were analyzed to assess the reservoir properties. Sediment porosities were estimated from density, neutron, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs. Both the resistivity and NMR logs were used to calculate gas hydrate saturations, the Simandoux model was employed to eliminate the effects of high clay content determined based on the ECS and core data. The density porosity was closely in agreement with the core-derived porosity, and the neutron porosity was higher while the NMR porosity was lower than the density porosity of sediments without hydrates. The resistivity log has higher vertical resolution than the NMR log and thus is more favorable for assessing gas hydrate saturation with strong heterogeneity. For the gas hydrate reservoirs at GMGS3-W19, the porosity, gas hydrate saturation and free gas saturation was 52.7%, 42.7% and 10%, on average, respectively. The various logs provide different methods for the comprehensive evaluation of hydrate reservoir, which supports the selection of candidate site for gas hydrate production testing.
This study focused on the quantitative analysis of the petrophysical parameters in characterizing the reservoir properties of the Srikail gas field using multi-scale wireline logs. Petrophysical parameters (shale volume, porosity, water saturation and hydrocarbon saturation) were estimated from the combination of gamma ray log, resistivity log, density log and neutron log for three hydrocarbon (gas)-bearing zones at well#3. At the first time, log records at 0.1 m and 0.2 m intervals were read for this study. Result showed the average shale volume is 21.07%, 53.67% and 51.71% for zone-1, zone-2 and zone-3, respectively. For these zones, the estimated average porosity was 35.89%, 29.83% and 28.76%, respectively. The average water saturation of 31.54%, 16.83% and 23.39% and average hydrocarbon saturation of 68.46%, 83.17% and 76.61% were calculated for zone-1, zone-2 and zone-3, respectively. Thus zone-2 is regarded the most productive zone of well#3. It was found that the values of some parameters (porosity, hydrocarbon saturation and permeability) are higher than the existing results. Therefore, this study confirmed that the log reading at minute/close interval provides better quantitive values of the reservoir’s petrophysical properties. It is expected that this result will contribute to the national gas field development program in future.
This study investigated water samples collected from the surface water and groundwater in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in different stages of the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (hereinafter referred to as COVID-19) in the city, aiming to determine the distribution characteristics of antiviral drugs in the city’s waters. The results are as follows. The main hydrochemical type of surface water and groundwater in Wuhan was Ca-HCO3. The major chemical components in the groundwater had higher concentrations and spatial variability than those in the surface water. Two antiviral drugs and two glucocorticoids were detected in the surface water, groundwater, and sewage during the COVID-19 outbreak. Among them, chloroquine phosphate and cortisone had higher detection rates of 32.26% and 25.80%, respectively in all samples. The concentrations of residual drugs in East Lake were higher than those in other waters. The main drug detected in the waters in the later stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan was chloroquine phosphate, whose detection rates in the surface water and the groundwater were 53.85% and 28.57%, respectively. Moreover, the detection rate and concentration of chloroquine phosphate were higher in East Lake than in Huangjia Lake. The groundwater containing chloroquine phosphate was mainly distributed along the river areas where the groundwater was highly vulnerable. The residual drugs in the surface water and the groundwater had lower concentrations in the late stage of the COVID-19 outbreak than in the middle of the outbreak, and they have not yet caused any negative impacts on the ecological environment.
A large number of antibiotics have been discharged into rivers by human activities, posing a threat to aquatic ecosystems. The surface water of the Yellow River Basin also suffers antibiotic pollution, which hinders the improvement in the aquatic ecological environment. This study investigated and analyzed the characteristics and assessed the ecological risks of antibiotic pollution in surface water bodies such as canals, rivers, and fish ponds in Kaifeng, Henan Province—a key city along the lower reaches of the Yellow River. The test results are as follows. A total of 15 types of antibiotics were detected in the surface water. They had a total antibiotic concentration of 12.2‒249.9 μg/L, of which tetracyclines (TCs) and quinolones accounted for the highest percentages. Six types of quinolones had detection rates of up to 100%, and doxycycline (DC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) had average concentrations of 29.52 μg/L1 and 13.71 μg/L, respectively. The major canals with water diverted from the Yellow River had total concentrations of quinolones and TCs of 22. 0 μg/L and 14.9 μg/L, respectively, which were higher than those in previous studies. This phenomenon may be related to the decrease in the water flow of the Yellow River during the dry season and the increase in the antibiotic consumption of residents in the context of the Covid-19 outbreak. The upper reaches of the Huiji River in the Xiangfu District had higher antibiotic content than other districts in Kaifeng. Specifically, TCs accounted for 72.38%‒91.84% of all antibiotics, and the DC and OTC concentrations were significantly higher than other antibiotics in the upper reaches. As indicated by the ecological risk assessment results, TCs had the highest ecological risks to green algae. Among them, DC had medium-high risks; TC, OTC, and chlortetracycline (CTC) had medium-high risks; trimethoprim (TMP) and lomefloxacin (LOM) had low risks; other TC antibiotics had no risk. Compared with green algae, most antibiotics showed higher ecological risks to daphnia and lower ecological risks to fish. DC and OTC dominate antibiotic pollutants in the surface water in Kaifeng City, and especially in Xiangfu District, where DC and OTC have medium-high risks. The TCs in the major Yellow River showed medium risks to both green algae and daphnia. It can be speculated that the antibiotic pollution in the Yellow River might pose a certain threat to the ecological security of water in Kaifeng City.
This paper aims to investigate the present situation and transfer mechanisms of microplastics in lacustrine sediments in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The study surveyed the average abundance of microplastics in sediments. The abundance of microplastics in sediments of lakes from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is 17.22–2643.65 items/kg DW and 0–60.63 items/kg DW based on the data of the Qinghai Lake and the Siying Co Basin. The microplastic abundance in sediments from small and medium lakes is very high compared to that in other areas in the world. Like microplastics in other lakes of the world, those in the lakes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau mainly include organic polymers PA, PET, PE, and PP and are primarily in the shape of fibers and fragments. The microplastic pollution of lacustrine sediments in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is affected by natural changes and by human activities, and the concentration of microplastics in lacustrine ecosystems gradually increases through food chains. Furthermore, the paper suggests the relevant administrative departments of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau strengthen waste management while developing tourism and pay much attention to the impacts of microplastics in water environments. This study provides a reference for preventing and controlling microplastic contamination in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
Microplastic pollution is widely distributed from surface water to sediments to groundwater vertically and from land to the ocean horizontally. This study collected samples from surface water, groundwater, and sediments from upper to lower reaches and then to the estuary in 16 typical areas in the Jinjiang River Basin, Fujian Province, China. Afterward, it determined the components and abundance of the microplastics and analyzed the possible microplastic sources through principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, seven main components of microplastics were detected, i.e., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyformaldehyde (POM), nylon 6 (PA6), and polystyrene (PS). Among them, PE and PP were found to have the highest proportion in the surface water and sediments and in the groundwater, respectively. The surface water, groundwater, and sediments had average microplastic abundance of 1.6 n/L, 2.7 n/L, and 33.8 n/kg, respectively. The microplastics in the sediments had the largest particle size, while those in the groundwater had the smallest particle size. Compared with water bodies and sediments in other areas, those in the study area generally have medium-low-level microplastic abundance. Three pollution sources were determined according to PCA, i.e., the dominant agriculture-forestry-fishery source, domestic wastewater, and industrial production. This study can provide a scientific basis for the control of microplastics in rivers.
This study identified two palynological assemblages, namely Bayanhuasporites-Cycadopites-Protoconiferus and Cicatricosisporites-Cedripites-Perinopollenites, in the Tongbomiao Formation in the Hongqi Sag in the Hailar Basin, Inner Mongolia, China for the first time. The former is distributed in the lower part of the Tongbomiao Formation and is characterized by abundant gymnosperm pollen and diverse fern spores. Among them, the gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Paleoconifer (4.98%–31.62%) and Cycadopite (8.55%–25.23%) pollen grains and also includes other pollen grains such as Classopollis, Parcisporites, Erlianpollis, Callialasporites, and Jiaohepollis. The fern spores in the former palynological assemblage contain Bayanhuasporite (0–8.96%), Granulatisporites (0.93%–6.97%), and some important Cretaceous genera, such as Cicatricosisporites, Concavissimisporites, Densoisporites, Hsuisporites, Foraminisporis, and Leptolepidites. The Cicatricosisporites-Cedripites-Perinopollenites palynological assemblage is distributed in the upper part of the Tongbomiao Formation. Gymnosperm (77.30%), Pinaceae (31.9%), and Paleoconiferus (19.02%) pollen predominate this palynological assemblage, and Quadraeculina, Erlianpollis, and Jiaohepollis pollen are also common in this assemblage. The fern spores in this palynological assemblage include abundant Cicatricosisporites (4.29%). Besides, Concavissimisporites, Aequitriradites, and Leptolepidites are also common in this palynological assemblage. No angiosperm pollen has been found in both palynological assemblages. The identification of both palynological assemblages provides important evidence for the biostratigraphic correlation between the Hailar Basin and its adjacent areas. It also enables the reconstructions of the Berriasian-Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) vegetation and the paleoclimate on the eastern Mongolian Plateau during 141–132 Ma. The vegetation reconstructed on the palynological data of the represented by Hailar Basin in eastern Mongolian Plateau (141.6–141.4 Ma), form conifer forest or conifer broad-leaved mixed forest to conifer forest with shrubs and grassland, the climate belongs to warm temperate and warm-subtropicalt, the highest temperature is estimated to reach 35–38℃. Form 132.3 Ma, the vegetation type is conifer forest, and its paleoclimate is sub-humid warm temperate, the highest temperature is estimated to reach 24–29℃.
The A-type granites with highly positive εNd(t) values in the West Junggar, Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), have long been perceived as a group formed under the same tectonic and geodynamic setting, magmatic source, and petrogenetic model. Geological evidence shows that these granites occurred at two different tectonic units related to the southeastern subduction of Junggar oceanic plate: the Hongshan and Karamay granites emplaced in the southeast of West Junggar in the Baogutu continental arc; whereas the Akebasitao and Miaoergou granites formed in the accretionary prism. Here the authors present new bulk-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes, zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes data on these granites. The granites in the Baogutu continental arc and accretionary prism contain similar zircon εHf(t) values (+10.9 to +16.2) and bulk-rock geochemical characteristics (e.g., high SiO2 and K2O contents, enriched LILEs (except Sr), depleted Sr, Ta, and Ti, and negative anomalies in Ce and Eu). The Hongshan and Karamay granites in the Baogutu continental arc have older zircon U-Pb ages (range: 315 Ma to 305 Ma) and moderate 18O enrichments (δ18Ozircon=+6.41‰–+7.96‰); whereas the Akebasitao and Miaoergou granites in the accretionary prism have younger zircon U-Pb ages (range: 305 Ma to 301 Ma) with higher 18O enrichments (δ18Ozircon=+8.72‰–+9.89‰). The authors deduce that the elevated 18O enrichments of the Akebasitao and Miaoergou granites were probably inherited from low-temperature altered oceanic crusts. The Akebasitao and Miaoergou granites were originated from partial melting of low-temperature altered oceanic crusts with juvenile oceanic sediments below the accretionary prism. The Hongshan and Karamay granites were mainly derived from partial melting of basaltic juvenile lower crust with mixtures of potentially chemical weathered ancient crustal residues and mantle basaltic melt (induced by hot intruding mantle basaltic magma at the bottom of the Baogutu continental arc). On the other hand, the Miaoergou charnockite might be sourced from a deeper partial melting reservoir under the accretionary prism, consisting of the low-temperature altered oceanic crust, juvenile oceanic sediments, and mantle basaltic melt. These granites could be related to the asthenosphere's counterflow and upwelling, caused by the break-off and delamination of the subducted oceanic plate beneath the accretionary prism Baogutu continental arc in a post-collisional tectonic setting.
Global warming and the response to it have become a topic of concern in today's society and are also a research focus in the global scientific community. As the world’s third pole, the global warming amplifier, and the starting region of China’s climate change, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is extremely sensitive to climate change. The permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is rich in natural gas hydrates (NGHs) resources. Under the background of global warming, whether the NGHs will be disassociated and enter the atmosphere as the air temperature rises has become a major concern of both the public and the scientific community. Given this, this study reviewed the trend of global warming and accordingly summarized the characteristics of the temperature increase in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Based on this as well as the distribution characteristics of the NGHs in the permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, this study investigated the changes in the response of the NGHs to global warming, aiming to clarify the impacts of global warming on the NGHs in the permafrost of the plateau. A noticeable response to global warming has been observed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Over the past decades, the increase in the mean annual air temperature of the plateau was increasingly high more recently. Specifically, the mean annual air temperature of the plateau changed at a rate of approximately 0.308‒0.420°C/10a and increased by approximately 1.54‒2.10°C in the past decades. Moreover, the annual mean ground temperature of the shallow permafrost on the plateau increased by approximately 1.155‒1.575°C and the permafrost area decreased by approximately 0.34×106 km2 from about 1.4×106 km2 to 1.06×106 km2 in the past decades. As indicated by simulated calculation results, the thickness of the NGH-bearing permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has decreased by 29‒39 m in the past 50 years, with the equivalent of (1.69‒2.27)×1010‒(1.12‒1.51)×1012 m3 of methane (CH4) being released due to NGHs dissociation. It is predicted that the thickness of the NGH-bearing permafrost will decrease by 23 m and 27 m, respectively and dissociated and released NGHs will be the equivalent of (1.34‒88.8)×1010 m3 and (1.57‒104)×1010 m3 of CH4, respectively by 2030 and 2050. Considering the positive feedback mechanism of NGHs on global warming and the fact that CH4 has a higher greenhouse effect than carbon dioxide, the NGHs in the permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau will emit more CH4 into the atmosphere, which is an important trend of NGHs under the background of global warming. Therefore, the NGHs are destructive as a time bomb and may lead to a waste of efforts that mankind has made in carbon emission reduction and carbon neutrality. Therefore, this study suggests that human beings should make more efforts to conduct the exploration and exploitation of the NGHs in the permafrost of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, accelerate research on the techniques and equipment for NGH extraction, storage, and transportation, and exploit the permafrost-associated NGHs while thawing them. The purpose is to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere and mitigate the atmospheric greenhouse effect, thus contributing to the global goal of peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality.
The Shimensi deposit is a recently discovered W-Cu-Mo polymetallic deposit located in the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn W belt in South China. The deposit has a resource of 0.74×106 t of WO3 accompanied by 0.4×106 t Cu and 28000 t Mo and other useful components like Ga, making it one of the largest W deposits in the world. This paper is aimed to reveal the ore-controlling mechanisms of the Shimensi deposit, involving the role of the ore-related granites, the tectonic background for its formation, and the metallogenesis model. The systematic geological survey suggests multi-types of alteration are developed in the deposit, mainly including greisenization, potassic-alteration, sericitization, chloritization, and silicification. Drilling engineering data and mining works indicate that the Shimensi deposit consists of two main orebodies of I and II. Therein, the W resource has reached a supergiant scale, and the accompanied Cu, Mo, Au, Bi, Ga, and some other useful components are also of economic significance. The main ore-minerals consist of scheelite, wolframite and chalcopyrite. Disseminated mineralization is the dominant type of the W-Cu-Mo polymetallic orebodies, and mainly distributes in the inner and external contact zone that between the Neoproterozoic biotite granodiorite and the Yanshanian granites. The main orebody occurs at the external contact zone, and the pegmatoid crust near the inner contact zone is an important prospecting marker of the W mineralization. Of them, the disseminated W ores within the wall rock of the Neoproterozoic biotite granodiorite is a new mineralization type identified in this paper. Combining previous geochronological and isotopic data, we propose that the mineralization of the Shimensi deposit is closely related to the intruding of the Yanshanian porphyritic biotite granite and granite porphyry. Geochemical data suggest that the biotite granodiorite is rich in Ca and had provided a large amount of Ca for the precipitation of scheelite in this area. Thus, it is a favorable wall rock type for W mineralization. The Shimensi deposit belongs to granitic-type W polymetallic deposit related to post-magmatic hydrothermal, and the ore-forming fluid was initially derived from the Yanshanian magmas.
Based on the comprehensive study of geology and geophysics in African continent, three types of lithosphere (craton-type, orogenic-type and rift-type) can be identified. Considering lithosphere discontinuities as the boundary, two first-order tectonic units (mainly cratonic-type in the west and rift-type in the east) are proposed. Different types of lithosphere can be divided into secondary-order and third-order structural units, and the blocks within lithosphere can be further divided into fourth-order structural units. The geological history, the formation process and significance of different types of lithosphere in African continent are briefly discussed.