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Original Articles
An integrated ore prospecting model for the Nyasirori gold deposit in Tanzania
Yang-sen Yuan, Shui-ping Li, Jun Peng, Jian-tao Si, Hua Cheng, Jin Sun, Jian-zheng Wei, Jiang-bo Shao
2019, 2(4): 407-421. doi: 10.31035/cg2018127
[Abstract](78) [FullText HTML] (37) [PDF 11962KB](90)
The Nyasirori gold deposit, located in the middle-western end of the Musoma-Mara Archean greenstone belt in Tanzania, is a tectonic altered rock type gold deposit controlled by shear tectonic zone. This work conducted high-precision ground magnetic measurements to delineate fault structures and favorable prospecting targets, utilized induced polarization (IP) intermediate gradient to roughly determine the distribution and extension of the tectonic altered zone and gold ore (mineralized) bodies, and further carried out IP sounding and magnetotelluric sounding to locate the tectonic altered zone and gold ore (mineralized) bodies. The anomalous gradient belt of the combination of positive and negative micromagnetic measurements reflects the detail of shallow surface tectonic alteration zone and gold mineralization body. Micromagnetic profile anomalies indicate the spatial location and occurrence of concealed tectonic alteration zone and gold (mineralized) ore bodies. Soil geochemical measurements indicate that the ore-forming element Au correlates well with As and Sb, and As and Sb anomalies have a good indication to gold orebodies. Based on the multi-source geological-geophysical-geochemical information of the Nyasirori gold deposit, this work established an integrated prospecting model and proposed a set of geophysical and geochemical methods for optimizing prospecting targets.
A new type U-Th-REE-Nb mineralization related to albitite: A case study from the Chachaxiangka deposit in the northeastern Qaidam Basin of China
Jun Zhong, Chao-nan Hu, Hong-hai Fan, Yu-qi Cai, Qing Chen, Jin-yong Chen, Yan-ning Meng
2019, 2(4): 422-438. doi: 10.31035/cg2018133
[Abstract](54) [FullText HTML] (37) [PDF 12908KB](15)
The U-Th-REE-Nb (Ta)-polymetallic mineralization is generally related to either the silica-undersaturated syenites, the silica-oversaturated alkaline/peralkaline granites or igneous carbonatites. In this study, the authors report a new mineralization type, which is related to the magmatic-hydrothermal albitite (with mineral assemblage predominated by albite with volume content > 90%), as exemplified by the Chachaxiangka deposit in Qinghai Province of China. The Chachaxiangka deposit is the first albitite-related U-Th-REE-Nb deposit recognized in China and the mineralization can be divided into 3 types: the vein-type, the disseminated veinlet type and breccia type, of which the former 2 are predominant. Three mineralization stages can be identified according to the detailed mineralogical analyses, including the magmatic stage, main hydrothermal mineralization stage and post-ore stage. By comprehensive analyses of the mineralogical, major and trace element compositions, the authors suggest that the albitite vein is magmatic-hydrothermal in origin and both the magmatic evolution and overprint of the hydrothermal fluids play important roles in the formation of the albitite and related polymetallic mineralization. Phase separation between the silicate melt and carbonate/phosphate melt might take place in the magmatic stage, yet the immiscibility between the silicate melt and chloride-dominated fluids is the most important mechanism for the REE mineralization and also causes the Nb-Th re-mobilization and enrichment. The red color of the albitite aplite vein is an eye-catching prospecting mark in the field and more mineralization can be expected at depth and in the surrounding areas. The discovery of the new albitite type U-Th-REE-Nb mineralization give rise to new ideas during future U-Th-REE-Nb exploration, not only in the Qaidam-Altun belt, but also other areas across China.
Discovery of Hesigewula Sag on the western margin of Da Hinggan Mountains in China and its significance in petroleum geology
Shi-zhen Li, Wei-bin Liu, Dan-dan Wang, Wen-hao Zhang, Yan-hua Lin, Shu Tao, Yao-hui Xu
2019, 2(4): 439-457. doi: 10.31035/cg2018126
[Abstract](58) [FullText HTML] (29) [PDF 13124KB](23)
With Songliao Basin in northeast China entering the middle-late stage of the exploration and development of oil and gas resources, it is urgent to open up new areas for oil and gas exploration on the periphery of the basin. Five sedimentary sags have been discovered in the western margin of the Da Hinggan Mountains through high-precision gravity, magnetic, and electrical prospecting engineering. According to the conditions of the 5 sags such as buried depth, area, and the scale of source rock, Hesigewula Sag was preferentially selected to deploy two-dimensional seismic prospecting and drilling. As a result, the stratigraphic distribution and structure of Hesigewula Sag were preliminarily ascertained, the main sedimentary facies developed in Aershan Formation-Tengger Formation of the Lower Cretaceous was summarized, and the assessment parameters of source rock of Hesigewula Sag were obtained. According to the research results, the Hesigewula Sag can be divided into 3 second-order tectonic units including the western bulge, the central sag, and the eastern bulge respectively, and the sag was formed mainly subject to the west fractures. Three sedimentary facies including fan delta facies, braided river delta facies, and lacustrine facies have been identified in the Aershan Formation-Tengger Formation of the sag. The source rock in the first member and second member of Tengger Formation in the sag features high abundance of organic matter, meeting the standards of good source rocks. The kerogen of the source rock is mainly of type II1 – II2. The organic matter in the source rock is characterized by low maturity and it entered the evolution stage of low maturity from the second member of Tengger Formation. Furthermore, Hesigewula Sag bears a strong similarity to other petroliferous sags in Erlian Basin in structure, sedimentation, source rock, and other characteristics. Therefore, it can be preliminarily determined that Hesigewula Sag boasts great potential for oil and gas resources.
Microscopic characteristics and geological significance of tight dolomite in well Xike-1, Xisha Islands, China
Qin Na, Hong Xu, Da-peng Su, Meng Tao, Wei-wei Zhang, Zhao-peng Ji, Qing Wang
2019, 2(4): 458-466. doi: 10.31035/cg2018089
[Abstract](55) [FullText HTML] (25) [PDF 12019KB](25)
A recent study suggests that the deep dolomites in well Xike-1 located more than 1000 m deep have a very low porosity, and no permeability for most of the samples. Given that the largest oil and gas fields in the South China Sea are all composed of biohermal dolomites while the deep dolomites of Xike-1 serve as the caprock formations rather than the reservoirs, this represents the first discovery and is of great theoretical importance. In this paper, core photos of the tight dolomites are presented. Hand specimens description and systematic porosity-permeability reveal a very low porosity, and no permeability for most of the samples. PLM, SEM and XRPD analysis discovered that the dolostones in the deep tight dolomites are quite large in size and euhedral or subhedral in shape. Alizarin red-stained sections are mostly pink in color and have a full coverage, which are considered as evidence for multiple calcite intrusions after the formation of ankerite dolomites. Biological relict textures are developed. The order degree is medium to low. The dolomites could be the product of penecontemporaneous dolomitization.
Mafic-ultramafic magma activity and copper-nickel sulfide metallogeny during Paleozoic in the Eastern Kunlun Orogenic Belt, Qinghai Province, China
Zhao-wei Zhang, Ya-lei Wang, Chi-yuan Wang, Bing Qian, Wen-yuan Li, Jiang-wei Zhang, Min-xin You
2019, 2(4): 467-477. doi: 10.31035/cg2018124
[Abstract](86) [FullText HTML] (85) [PDF 10996KB](82)
The Eastern Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB) has a complex geological structure and diverse magmatic activities, which are closely related to the Qaidam Basin and the Tethys tectonic evolution. There are at least 3 stages mafic-ultramafic rocks occurred in the Early Paleozoic in EKOB. The first stage is the Later-Silurian to Early Devonian, represented by the giant Xiarihamu super large magmatic Cu-Ni deposit, containing about 1.18 million metric tons (Mt) of nickel with average grades of 0.65% Ni, and its age of ore-forming pyroxene peridotite is 411 Ma; The second stage is the Early Carboniferous, represented by the large Shitoukengde magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposit, and its ore-forming age of the olivine websterite is 334 Ma; The third stage of mafic-ultramafic rocks occurred mainly during the Middle-Late Triassic, represented by Xiaojianshan, Lalinggaoli, and Kaimuqi complexes, and no economical ore bodies have been found in this period. The authors summarized the difference between the ore-bearing and the non-mineralized mafic-ultramafic rocks in the EKOB. The olivine of the ore-bearing complexes contains higher MgO and SiO2 content but lower FeO and CaO contents, and the clinopyroxene of ore-bearing complexes contains lower FeO and CaO contents. Crustal sulfur contamination is key to the formation of the giant Xiarihamu Ni deposit, and crustal sulfur contamination degree of the giant magmatic Ni deposit is higher than that of large Ni deposit. The above indicators could guide the exploration and evaluation of similar deposits in the EKOB.
Characteristics of tectonic deformation of the melange zone in the Lachlan Orogen along eastern coast of Australia
Dong-sheng Wang, Zong-qi Wang, Gang Wang, Xian-qing Guo, Yu-dong Wu
2019, 2(4): 478-492. doi: 10.31035/cg2018131
[Abstract](62) [FullText HTML] (24) [PDF 12337KB](11)
The Narooma-Batemans Bay (NBB) area along the southeast coast of Australia is a part of the eastern zone of the Early Paleozoic Lachlan Orogen. In the NBB, a set of rock association consisting of turbidites, siliceous rock, basic lava, and argillaceous melange zone is mainly developed. According to systematic field geological survey, the deformation of 3 stages (D1, D2, and D3) was identified in the NBB. At stage D1, with the original bedding S0 in a nearly east-west trending as the deformation plane, tight folds, isoclinal folds, and other structures formed in the NBB accompanied by structural transposition. As a result, crenulation cleavage developed along the axial plane of the folds and schistosity S1 formed. At stage D2, with north-south-trending schistosity S1 as the deformation plane, a large number of asymmetrical folds and rotated porphyroclasts formed owing to thrusting and shear. At stage D3, left-lateral strike-slip occurred along the main north-south-trending schistosity. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of tectonic deformation in the NBB and summary of previous research results, it is determined that the early-stage (D1) deformation is related to Ordovician Macquarie arc-continent collision and the deformation at stages D2 and D3 is the result of the westward subduction of Paleo-Pacific Plate. That is, it is not the continuous westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate that constitutes the evolution model of the NBB as previously considered.
Magnetostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental significance of sediments from ANT29-P7-09 core in Prydz Bay, Antarctica
Zhong-yang Lin, Xi-bin Han, Xiang-long Jin, Chao-hui Zhu, Liang Yi, Zheng-gang Li
2019, 2(4): 493-500. doi: 10.31035/cg2018134
[Abstract](68) [FullText HTML] (28) [PDF 11121KB](31)
Due to the unique geographical location and sensitive response to global climate changes, the Antarctic region plays an important role in paleoclimate researches, and attracts great attentions from various scholars. One 324 cm long sediment core (ANT29-P7-09) was obtained from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during the 29th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition. Based on sediment particle size, TOC, δ13C analyses and magnetism data, the authors show that the dominant magnetic minerals are ferrimagnetic pseudo single domain (PSD)-multi domain (MD) magnetite. Variations in the paleoenvironmental records allow us to define 4 zones in the core. These zones outline the climatic variations in the region since the late Early Pleistocene, including a warm period, a transitional period, and a cold period. The magnetic particle assemblage varies with glacial-interglacial cycles. Abrupt changes in particle size, TOC content, and geomagnetism occur at 102–90 cm deep in the core, indicating a sudden warming in the Antarctic region, signaling the onset of the Holocene. The authors identified 3 additional climatic signals in the middle part of the core (232–162 cm) that show unexpected cooling events during the warm period in Prydz Bay, Antarctica.
Investigation of soil and groundwater environment in urban area during post-industrial era: A case study of brownfield in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, China
Shuai Yang, Wei-ya Ge, Hong-han Chen, Wen-li Xu
2019, 2(4): 501-511. doi: 10.31035/cg2018128
[Abstract](36) [FullText HTML] (20) [PDF 10865KB](10)
With the adjustment of industrial structure, many high pollution enterprises will gradually shut down. This process will produce a large number of high-risk pollution plots and cause a series of environmental problems. In this study, geophysical detection and direct push technology were applied to investigate soil and groundwater pollution in a typical brownfield in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu province, China. The results showed that Chlorotoluene and its ramification were the main pollutants for the brownfield. Pollution decreased with depth and was quite uneven in the brownfield. Production and wastewater treatment areas were heavily polluted, where volatile organic compounds contaminated and semi-volatile organic compounds were found 12 m and 15 m below the land surface, respectively. About 18880 m3 groundwater was contaminated. This study is significant to develop a geological survey work mode for the post-industrial era.
The hydrochemical characteristics and its significance of geothermal water in both sides of large fault: Taking northern section of the Liaokao fault in north China as an example
Bao-jian Zhang, Tian Zhao, Yan-yan Li, Yi-fei Xing, Gui-ling Wang, Jun Gao, Xian-chun Tang, Wen-zhen Yuan, Dai-lei Zhang
2019, 2(4): 512-521. doi: 10.31035/cg2018132
[Abstract](28) [FullText HTML] (21) [PDF 10839KB](25)
Based on comparative analysis on hydrochemical characteristics of geothermal water in the north part of Liaokao fault, this research focuses on studying the indicative significance of hydrochemical characteristics for the formation of geothermal water. The result shows that: (1) There is no obvious hydraulic connection between the karst geothermal water (occurred in the east part of the Liaokao fault) and the sandstone geothermal water (occurred in the west part of Liaokao fault). (2) In a close hydrological environment, caused by tectonic activities, geothermal water remains longer time in reservoir, hence the water-rock interaction is more complete, with high degree of concentrations, whereas the renewable capacity of the water is weaker. (3) There is no high temperature mantle source fluid mixed in the geothermal water. Karst geothermal water occurred deep circulatory convection along Liaokao fault and its secondary fault, therefore there is deep crust source fluid added into the geothermal water, closer to the Liaokao fault, the greater affected by the deep crust fluid. However, sandstone geothermal water has weak deep circulatory convection.
Investigation and numerical simulation of summer sedimentation in Jiaozhou Bay, China
Yong Zhang, Bin Chen, Ze Ning, Yun-fan Yang, Gang Hu, Xiao-bo Zhang, Hou-jie Wang
2019, 2(4): 522-529. doi: 10.31035/cg2018090
[Abstract](55) [FullText HTML] (33) [PDF 11074KB](49)
In recent years, development activities have had a significant impact on the environment of the Jiaozhou Bay, China. To ensure the sustainable economic and social development of the Jiaozhou Bay area, it is necessary to strengthen corresponding control measures. The important prerequisite is to properly understand the environmental conditions laws of natural change, especially the dynamic processes of sediment and the characteristics of landform evolution. Based on the data of continuous observation at 6 stations in Jiaozhou Bay for 25 hours, the Hydrodynamic Eutrophication Model (HEM-3D) was used to simulate the sediment erosion and deposition. The results show that the maximum suspended sediment concentration in the sea area of Jiaozhou Bay is about 40 mg/L, which appears in the northwestern area of the bay top and the Cangkou watercourse area, and the low concentration is located in the area of the central Jiaozhou Bay towards the bay mouth. The suspended sediment is 6−10 mg/L. Affected by a decrease in seawater material, the direction of the prevailing current in the Jiaozhou Bay area is different from that of the sediment transport. The velocity of the flood current is higher than that of the ebb current. However, during flood tide, the flux of resuspended seafloor sediment outside and at the mouth of the bay is limited and cannot contribute significantly to the suspended sediment in the bay. During ebb tide, the resuspended sediment at the shallow-water bay head and the east and west sides spreads toward the bay mouth with the ebb current, although it extends beyond the bay through the bay mouth. The research results can provide scientific support for the Jiaozhou Bay project construction and environmental protection.
Review Articles
Deep structural research of the South China Sea: Progresses and directions
Xu-wen Qin, Bin Zhao, Fu-yuan Li, Bao-jin Zhang, Hou-jin Wang, Ru-wei Zhang, Jia-xiong He, Xi Chen
2019, 2(4): 530-540. doi: 10.31035/cg2018125
[Abstract](110) [FullText HTML] (136) [PDF 11315KB](30)
The South China Sea (SCS) is the hotspot of geological scientific research and nature resource exploration and development due to the potential for enormous hydrocarbon resource development and a complex formation and evolution process. The SCS has experienced complex geological processes including continental lithospheric breakup, seafloor spreading and oceanic crust subduction, which leads debates for decades. However, there are still no clear answers regarding to the following aspects: the crustal and Moho structure, the structure of the continent-ocean transition zone, the formation and evolution process and geodynamic mechanism, and deep processes and their coupling relationships with the petroliferous basins in the SCS. Under the guidance of the “Deep-Earth” science and technology innovation strategy of the Ministry of Natural Resources, deep structural and comprehensive geological research are carried out in the SCS. Geophysical investigations such as long array-large volume deep reflection seismic, gravity, magnetism and ocean bottom seismometer are carried out. The authors proposed that joint gravity-magnetic-seismic inversion should be used to obtain deep crustal information in the SCS and construct high resolution deep structural sections in different regions of the SCS. This paper systematically interpreted the formation and evolution of the SCS and explored the coupling relationship between deep structure and evolution of Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins in the SCS. It is of great significance for promoting the geosystem scientific research and resource exploration of the SCS.
A review and research on comprehensive characterization of microscopic shale gas reservoir space
Yu-ru Yang, Xiao-chen Liu, Hui Zhang, Gang-yi Zhai, Jiao-dong Zhang, Zhi-fang Hu, Shu-jing Bao, Cong Zhang, Xiang-hua Wang, Xiao Yang, Zheng-zhuang Liu, Ting Xie, Juan Chen, Li-yu Fang, Li-juan Qin
2019, 2(4): 541-556. doi: 10.31035/cg2018116
[Abstract](63) [FullText HTML] (36) [PDF 13297KB](21)
In this paper, substantial domestic and foreign research results of microscopic shale reservoir space were systemically reviewed, the research history consisting of simple observation and qualitative classification, quantitative research, the combination of qualitative and quantitative research successively as well as the characteristics of each research stage were summarized. In addition, the current problems existing in the characterization methods of shale reservoir space were also analyzed. Furthermore, based on massive actual detection of typical core samples obtained from more than 50 global shale gas wells and relevant practical experience, a comprehensive characterization method of combining qualitative with the semi-quantitative characterization was put forward. In detail, the indicators of the qualitative characterization include pore combination type and organic-matter microscopic morphology type, while the core elements of the semi-quantitative characterization include the percentage of the organic-matter area and the plane porosity of the pores of different types. Based on the reference of the naming and classification of rocks, the three-end-member diagram method was used to characterize microscopic shale reservoir space. This is achieved by plotting the three end-member diagram of 3 kinds of first-order critical reservoir spaces, i.e., organic-matter pores, matrix pores, and micro-fractures, in order to intuitively present the features of the microscopic pore combination. Meanwhile, statistic histograms of organic-matter microscopic morphology type and the plane porosity of different types of pores were adopted to characterize the development degree of second-order pores quantitatively. By this comprehensive characterization method, the importance of both pore combination and the microscopic morphology of organic matter were emphasized, revealing the control of organic-matter microscopic morphology over the organic-matter pores. What is more, high-resolution FE-SEM was adopted to obtain semi-quantitative statistics results. In this way, the features of pore development and pore combination were quantified, not only reflecting the types and storage capacity of the microscopic shale reservoir space, but also presenting the hydrocarbon-generating potential of organic matter in shale. Therefore, the results of this research are capable of providing in-depth microscopic information for the assessment and exploration and development of shale gas resources.
Research Advances
Zircon U-Pb age of Fengxian acid pyroclastic rocks and its enlightenment to the existence of Pan-African orogeny in the West Qinling Orogenic Belt, China
Yong Wang, Yong-hong Shi, Bai-lin Chen, Ren-wen Tan, Yun Gao, Jing-hui Shen
2019, 2(4): 557-559. doi: 10.31035/cg2018130
[Abstract](48) [FullText HTML] (30) [PDF 10494KB](32)
Discovery of hydrocarbon source rocks in the Permian Xinxing Formation in the southern Zhangguangcai range, Northeast China
Mi-shan Zhong, Jin Liu, Hai-peng Wang, Zi-jie Wu, Shuai Liang, Fu-rong Zhai, Qi Wang, Yi-long Wang, Cheng-bin Zhang, Ran Wang, Fen-li Wang
2019, 2(4): 560-562. doi: 10.31035/cg2018129
[Abstract](55) [FullText HTML] (23) [PDF 10553KB](30)
News and Highlights
Building an Up-and-Coming City – An overview of the Geological Data Sharing Service Platform of the Xiongan New Area
2019, 2(4): 563-565. doi: 10.31035/cg2018136
[Abstract](47) [FullText HTML] (18) [PDF 10328KB](6)
2018 annual report on China oil and gas resources exploration and exploitation
2019, 2(4): 566-568. doi: 10.31035/cg2018135
[Abstract](23) [FullText HTML] (18) [PDF 10271KB](8)
Editorial Committee of China Geology
2019, 2(4): 569-570.
[Abstract](21) [FullText HTML] (12) [PDF 3667KB](12)