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Nanjinganthus is an Early Jurassic angiosperm recognized based on the study of over 200 specimens. However, some other authors have misinterpreted these fossils. Here the authors try to remedy the problems, by pointing out the logical pitfalls in these publications and underscoring a long-used, workable criterion for early angiosperms. The paper explains the cons and pros of this criterion, hoping to bring palaeobotany and plant taxonomy back to a consistent and practical track. Nanjinganthus is an angiosperm.
Gas hydrate is one kind of potential energy resources that is buried under deep seafloor or frozen areas. The first trial offshore production from the silty reservoir was conducted in the South China Sea by the China Geological Survey (CGS). During this test, there were many unique characteristics different from the sand reservoir, which was believed to be related to the clayed silt physical properties. In this paper, simulation experiments, facilities analysis, and theoretical calculation were used to confirm the hydrate structure, reservoir thermo-physical property, and bond water movement rule. And the behavior of how they affected production efficiency was analyzed. The results showed that: It was reasonable to use the structure I rather than structure II methane hydrate phase equilibrium data to make the production plan; the dissociation heat absorbed by hydrate was large enough to cause hydrate self-protection or reformation depend on the reservoir thermal transfer and gas supply; clayed silt got better thermal conductivity compared to coarse grain, but poor thermal convection especially with hydrate; clayed silt sediment was easy to bond water, but the irreducible water can be exchanged to free water under high production pressure, and the most obvious pressure range of water increment was 1.9–4.9 MPa.
Although some porphyry-skarn deposits occur in post-collisional extensional settings, the post-collisional deposits remain poorly understood. Here the authors describe the igneous geology, and mineralization history of Tuolangla, a newly-discovered porphyry-skarn Cu-W-Mo deposit in southern Tibet that belongs to the post-collisional class. The deposit is associated with Lower Cretaceous Bima Formation. It was intruded by granodiorite porphyry intrusions at about 23.1 Ma. Field investigation indicated that mineralization is spatially and temporally associated with granodiorite porphyry. Molybdenite yielded a Re-Os weighted mean age of 23.5 ± 0.3 Ma and is considered to represent the age of skarn mineralization at the deposit. The δ34S values of sulfides, concentrated in a range between 0.6‰ to 3.4‰, show that the sulfur has a homogeneous source with characteristics of magmatic sulfur. The Pb isotopic compositions of sulfides indicate that ore-forming metal materials were derived from the mantle and ancient crust. The granodiorite porphyry displays high SiO2 (68.78%–69.75%) and K2O (3.40%–3.56%) contents, and relatively lower Cr (2.4×10-6–4.09×10-6), Ni (2.79×10-6–3.58×10-6) contents, and positive εHf(t) values (7.7–12.9) indicating that the mineralization porphyry was derived from the partial melting of juvenile lower crust. The Tuolangla deposit is located in the central part of Zedang terrane. This terrane was once considered an ancient terrane. This terrane is in tectonic contact with Cretaceous ophiolitic rocks to its south and Mesozoic continental margin arc volcanics and intrusions of the Gangdese batholith of the Lhasa terrane to its north. Thus, the authors proposed that the Oligocene porphyry skarn Cu-W-Mo mineralization is probably associated with the Zedang terrane. This finding may clarify why the Oligocene (about 23 Ma) deposits are found only in the Zedang area and why mineralization types of the Oligocene mineralization are considerably different from those of the Miocene (17–14 Ma) mineralization.
Recently, continuous breakthroughs have been made about deep gold prospecting in the Jiaodong gold province area of China. Approximately 5000 t of cumulative gold resources have been explored in Jiaodong, which has thus become an internationally noteworthy gold ore cluster. The gold exploration depth has been increased to about 2000 m from the previous <1000 m. To further explore the mineralization potential of the Jiaodong area at a depth of about 3000 m, the Shandong Institute of Geological Sciences has drilled an exploratory drillhole named “Deep drillhole ZK01” to a depth of 3266 m. Hence, as reported herein, the mineralization characteristics of the Jiaojia metallogenic belt have been successfully documented. ZK01 is, to date, the deepest borehole with an gold intersect in China, and constitutes a significant advance in deep gold prospecting in China. The findings of this study further indicate that the depth interval of 2000 m to 4000 m below the ground surface in the Wuyi Village area incorporates 912 t of inferred gold resources, while the depth interval of 2000 m to 4000 m below the surface across the Jiaodong area possesses about 4000 t of inferred gold resources. The Jiaojia Fault Belt tends to gently dip downward, having dip angles of about 25° and about 20° at vertical depths of 2000 m and 2850 m, respectively. The deep part of the Jiaojia metallogenic belt differs from the shallow and moderately deep parts about fracturing, alteration, mineralization, and tectonic type. The deep zones can generally be categorized from inside outward as cataclastic granite, granitic cataclasite, weakly beresitized granitic cataclasite, beresitized cataclasite, and gouge. These zones exhibit a gradual transitional relation or occur alternately and repeatedly. The mineralization degree of the pyritized cataclastic granite-type ore in the deep part of the Jiaojia metallogenic belt is closely related to the degree of pyrite vein development; that is, the higher the pyrite content, the wider the veins and the higher the gold grade. Compared to the shallow gold ores, the deep-seated gold ores have higher fineness and contain joseite, tetradymite, and native bismuth, suggesting that the deep gold mineralization temperature is higher and that mantle-sourced material may have contributed to this mineralization. ZK01 has also revealed that the deep-seated ore bodies in the Jiaojia metallogenic belt are principally situated above the main fracture plane (gouge) and hosted within the Linglong Granite, contradicting previous findings indicating that the moderately shallow gold ore bodies are usually hosted in the contact zone between the Linglong Granite and Jiaodong Group or meta-gabbro. These new discoveries are particularly significant because they can help correct mineralization prospecting models, determine favorable positions for deep prospecting, and improve metallogenic prediction and resource potential evaluation.
This paper focuses on the heavy metal enrichment and heavy metal pollution degree associated with mining activities in some crops and the soils of different parent materials in the Xiaoqinling Gold Belt. According to the geochemical analysis results of the soils observed in the gold belt, the soils are most highly enriched in Pb, followed by Cr, Cu, and Zn. Furthermore, they are relatively poor in Hg, Cd, and As. It is also shown that the heavy metals in all kinds of soils have the same geochemical characteristics in the gold belt. As for the crops (such as corn and wheat) in the gold belt, Zn and Cu are the most abundant elements, followed by Pb and Cr. Meanwhile, Hg, Cd, and As were found to have relatively low concentrations in the crops. The heavy metals in wheat and corn have the same geochemical characteristics in the gold belt in general. Compared to the aeolian loess soils and the crops therein, heavy metals are more enriched in diluvial and alluvial soils and the crops therein. As shown by relevant studies, the Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn pollution are mainly caused by mining activities. Corn and wheat in the gold belt have a high tendency of risk exposure to heavy metal pollution since they are mostly affected by mining activities and feature high background values of heavy metal concentrations. Furthermore, wheat is more liable to be enriched in heavy metals than corn is grown in all types of soils. The Hg pollution in soils leads to Hg accumulation, increasing the risk of Hg uptake in crops, and further affecting human health. This study will provide a scientific basis for the control and management of heavy metals in farmland soils of mining areas.
The central Zhuguang Mountains in Hunan Province is located at the junction of the three provinces, namely Hunan, Jiangxi, and Guangdong, where the famous Lujing uranium ore field lies. The uranium deposits occurring in this area are all granite-related and they can be divided into three types, namely endogranitic ones, perigranitic ones, and contact zone types. The endogranitic uranium deposits are mainly controlled by the structural alteration zones developing within granites, with fragmentation, hematitization, and alkali metasomatism as their main mineralization characteristics. The perigranitic uranium deposits are mainly produced in the carbonaceous, siliceous, and argillaceous composite layers of epimetamorphic rocks and are controlled by fractured zones formed due to interlayer compression. The contact zone type uranium deposits mainly occur in the contact parts between the granites and favorable horizons. They have developed in favorable sections where multiple sets of structures are combined and intersected. The main metallogenic regularities of uranium in the central Zhuguang Mountains are as follows. The basic conditions for the uranium mineralization in this area include the framework consisting of regional deep large faults and their associated multi-set multi-direction favorable metallogenic structures, multi-cycle and multi-stage uranium-rich rock masses, and uranium-rich folded basement. Meanwhile, the uranium deposits in this area are closely related to granites in terms of genesis and space and they are formed in different structural parts subject to the same metallization. Furthermore, based on the summary of the characteristics and regularities of uranium mineralization in this area, the controlling factors of different types of uranium deposits in the area were explored and six metallogenic target areas were predicted. All these will provide references for the exploration of uranium deposits in this area.
Increasing interests in hydrocarbon resources at depths have drawn greater attentions to the deeply-buried carbonate reservoirs in the Tarim Basin in China. In this study, the cyclic dolomite rocks of Upper Cambrian Lower Qiulitag Group from four outcrop sections in northwestern Tarim Basin were selected to investigate and evaluate the petrophysical properties in relation to depositional facies and cyclicity. The Lower Qiulitag Group includes ten lithofacies, which were deposited in intermediate to shallow subtidal, restricted shallow subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal environments on a carbonate ramp system. These lithofacies are vertically stacked into repeated shallowing-upward, meter-scale cycles which are further grouped into six third-order depositional sequences (Sq1 to Sq6). There are variable types of pore spaces in the Lower Qiulitag Group dolomite rocks, including interparticle, intraparticle, and fenestral pores of primary origin, inter crystal, and vuggy pores of late diagenetic modification. The porosity in the dolomites is generally facies-selective as that the microbially-originated thrombolites and stromatolites generally yield a relatively high porosity. In contrast, the high-energy ooidal grainstones generally have very low porosity. In this case, the microbialite-based peritidal cycles and peritidal cycle-dominated highstand (or regressive) successions have relatively high volumes of pore spaces, although highly fluctuating (or vertical inhomogeneous). Accordingly, the grainstone-based subtidal cycles and subtidal cycle-dominated transgressive successions generally yield extremely low porosity. This scenario indicates that porosity development and preservation in the thick dolomite successions are primarily controlled by depositional facies which were influenced by sea-level fluctuations of different orders and later diagenetic overprinting.
This study is about the reconstruction of fluvial origins based on the grain size distribution of sediment deposits in the western Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China. Thirteen sediment cores were selected to research sediment characteristics using the Sahu discriminant formula, C-M diagram, and Folk method. The results showed: (1) Bounded by the Guangli River estuary, the north sediment was affected by the water and sand flowing from the Yellow River during different periods. The south sediment came from multi-source rivers under the influence of the Xiaoqing River, Mihe River, and other coastal rivers; (2) the deposited sediments were dated by a clear historical record of the branched channel oscillation combined with the characteristics of the diversion channel, erosion, and regression. The subaqueous delta overlapped during several Yellow River channel runs (1897–1904, 1929–1934, 1938–1947, 1947–1953, 1976–1996) and the deposited sediment facies changed (the north tidal flat-abandoned subaqueous delta-lateral delta-delta front); (3) the deposited sediment characteristics can be revealed by studying the branched diversions of the Yellow River and coastal multi-rivers of the past one hundred years.
Many landslide disasters, which tend to result in significant damage, are caused by typhoon-triggered rainstorms. In this case, it is very important to study the dynamic characteristics of the hydrological response of landslide bodies since it enables the early warning and prediction of landslide disasters in typhoon periods. To investigate the dynamic mechanisms of groundwater in a landslide body under typhoon-triggered rainstorm conditions, the authors selected the landslide occurring in Zhonglin Village, Wencheng County, China (also referred to as Zhonglin Village landslide) as a case study. The transient seepage field characteristics of groundwater in the landslide body were simulated with two different rainfall models by using the finite element method (FEM). The research results show that the impact of typhoon-triggered rainstorms on landslides can be divided into three stages: (i) Rapid rise of groundwater level; (ii) infiltration of groundwater from the surface to deeper level, and (iii) surface runoff erosion. Moreover, the infiltration rate of groundwater in the landslide body is mainly affected by the intensity of typhoon-induced rainfall. It can be deduced that higher rainfall intensity leads to a greater potential difference and a higher infiltration rate. The rainfall intensity also determines the development mode of landslide deformation and destruction.
The scientific field test site of rainfall-soil moisture-groundwater conversion in Dabie Mountain Area–Jianghan Plain is located in the northern region of the Jianghan Plain, the transition zone between the Dabie Mountain Area and Jianghan Plain. It’s a great field test site to study the material and energy exchange among rainfall, soil moisture, and groundwater of the Earth’s critical zone in subtropical monsoon climate plain areas. This paper analyzed the connection between rainfall and volume water content (VWC) of soil at different depths of several soil profiles, and the dynamic feature of groundwater was discussed, which reveals the rainfall infiltration recharge of Quaternary Upper Pleistocene strata. The results show that the Quaternary Upper Pleistocene aquifer groundwater accepts a little direct rainfall recharge, while the lateral recharge is the main supplement source. There were 75 effective rainfall events among 120 rainfall events during the monitoring period, with an accumulated amount of 672.9 mm, and the percentages of effective rainfall amount and duration time were 62.50% and 91.56%, respectively. The max evaporation depth at the upper part in Quaternary cohesive soil was no less than 1.4 m. The soil profile was divided into four zones: (1) The sensitive zone of rainfall infiltration within 1.4 m, where the material and energy exchange frequently near the interface between atmosphere and soil; (2) the buffer zone of rainfall infiltration between 1.4 m and 3.5 m; (3) the migration zone of rainfall infiltration between 3.5 m and 5.0 m; and (4) the rainfall infiltration and groundwater level co-influenced zone below 5.0 m. The results revealed the reaction of soil moisture and groundwater to rainfall in the area covered by cohesive soil under humid climate in Earth’s critical zone, which is of great theoretical and practical significance for groundwater resources evaluation and development, groundwater environmental protection, ecological environmental improvement, drought disaster prevention, and flood disaster prevention in subtropical monsoon climate plain areas.
Fluorite is one of the important mineral raw materials in the industry. In China, it is mainly distributed in the provinces and regions such as Hunan, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Inner Mongolia, Fujian, and Henan provinces, boasting huge reserves and large numbers of deposits. However, most of the fluorite deposits are on a small or medium scale. The main fluorite deposits in China were studied in this paper. Their geological features and metallogenic regularity were summarized and compared. Meanwhile, based on their main genetic factors including metallogenic fluid sources and main metallogenic geological processes, they were divided into two groups, namely meso-epithermal deposits and magmatic-hydrothermal deposits. Furthermore, based on the prospecting achievements and research progress obtained in fluorite deposits in recent years, prospecting potential predictions were made for the metallogenic prospect areas and major prospecting areas of fluorite in China. This aims to provide a theoretical basis and direction for future fluorite prospecting in China.