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The intersection of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) and the Central Basin Rift (CBR) of the West Philippine Basin (WPB) is a relic of a trench-trench-rift (TTR) type triple-junction, which preserves some pivotal information on the cessation of the seafloor spreading of the WPB, the emplacement and disintegration of the proto-Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc, and the transition from initial rifting to steady-state spreading of the Parece Vela Basin (PVB). However, the structural characteristics of this triple-junction have not been thoroughly understood. In this paper, using the newly acquired multi-beam bathymetric, gravity, and magnetic data obtained by the Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, China Geological Survey, the authors depict the topographic, gravity, and magnetic characteristics of the triple-junction and adjacent region. Calculations including the upward continuations and total horizontal derivatives of gravity anomaly are also performed to highlight the major structural features and discontinuities. Based on these works, the morphological and structural features and their formation mechanisms are analyzed. The results show that the last episode amagmatic extension along the CBR led to the formation of a deep rift valley, which extends eastward and incised the KPR. The morphological and structural fabrics of the KPR near and to the south of the triple-junction are consistent with those of the western PVB, manifesting as a series of NNE-SSW- and N-S-trending ridges and troughs, which were produced by the extensional faults associated with the initial rifting of the PVB. The superposition of the above two reasons induced the prominent discontinuity of the KPR in deep and shallow crustal structures between 15°N‒15°30′N and 13°30′N‒14°N. Combined with previous authors’ results, we propose that the stress produced by the early spreading of the PVB transmitted westward and promoted the final stage amagmatic extension of the CBR. The eastward propagation of the CBR destroyed the KPR, of which the magmatism had decayed or ceased at that time. The destruction mechanism of the KPR associated with the rifting of the PVB varies along strike the KPR. Adjacent to the triple-junction, the KPR was destroyed mainly due to the oblique intersection of the PVB rifting center. Whereas south of the triple-junction, the KPR was destroyed by the E-W-directional extensional faulting on its whole width.
The southern part of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is located at the conjunction of the West Philippine Basin, the Parece Vela Basin, the Palau Basin, and the Caroline Basin. This area has extremely complex structures and is critical for the research on the tectonic evolution of marginal seas in the Western Pacific Ocean. However, only few studies have been completed on the southern part, and the geophysical fields and deep structures in this part are not well understood. Given this, this study finely depicts the characteristics of the gravity and magnetic anomalies and extracts information on deep structures in the southern part of the KPR based on the gravity and magnetic data obtained from the 11th expedition of the deep-sea geological survey of the Western Pacific Ocean conducted by the Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, China Geological Survey using the R/V Haiyangdizhi 6. Furthermore, with the data collected on the water depth, sediment thickness, and multichannel seismic transects as constraints, a 3D density model and Moho depths of the study area were obtained using 3D density inversion. The results are as follows. (1) The gravity and magnetic anomalies in the study area show distinct zoning and segmentation. In detail, the gravity and magnetic anomalies to the south of 11°N of the KPR transition from high-amplitude continuous linear positive anomalies into low-amplitude intermittent linear positive anomalies. In contrast, the gravity and magnetic anomalies to the north of 11°N of the KPR are discontinuous and show alternating positive and negative anomalies. These anomalies can be divided into four sections, of which the separation points correspond well to the locations of deep faults, thus, revealing different field-source attributes and tectonic genesis of the KPR. (2) The Moho depth in the basins in the study area is 6–12 km. The Moho depth in the southern part of KPR show segmentation. Specifically, the depth is 10‒12 km to the north of 11°N, 12‒14 km from 9.5°N to 11°N, 14–16 km from 8.5°N to 9.5°N, and 16‒25 km in the Palau Islands. (3) The KPR is a remnant intra-oceanic arc with the oceanic-crust basement.which shows noticeably discontinuous from north to south in geological structure and is intersected by NEE-trending lithospheric-scale deep faults. With large and deep faults F3 and F1 (the Mindanao fault) as boundaries overall, the southern part of the KPR can be divided into three zones. In detail, the portion to the south of 8.5°N (F3) is a tectonically active zone, the KPR portion between 8.5°N and 11°N is a tectonically active transition zone, and the portion to the north of 11°N is a tectonically inactive zone. (4) The oceanic crust in the KPR is slightly thicker than that in the basins on both sides of the ridge, and it is inferred that the KPR formed from the thickening of the oceanic crust induced by the upwelling of deep magma in the process of rifting of remnant arcs during the Middle Oligocene. In addition, it is inferred that the thick oceanic crust under the Palau Islands is related to the constant upwelling of deep magma induced by the continuous northwestward subduction of the Caroline Plate toward the Palau Trench since the Late Oligocene. This study provides a scientific basis for systematically understanding the crustal attributes, deep structures, and evolution of the KPR.
The Philippine Sea is the largest marginal sea in the Western Pacific Ocean and is divided into two parts by the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR). The western part is the West Philippine Basin, and the eastern part consists of the Shikoku and Parece Vela basins. Based on surveyed data of massive high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data and sub-bottom profiles data collected from the southern section of the KPR from 2018 to 2021, this paper analyzes the topographic and geomorphological features, shallow sedimentary features, and tectonic genesis of the southern section of the KPR, obtaining the following conclusions. The southern section of the KPR has complex and rugged topography, with positive and negative topography alternatingly distributed and a maximum height difference of 4086 m. The slope of seamounts in this section generally exceeds 10° and is up to a maximum of 59°. All these contribute noticeably discontinuous topography. There are primarily nine geomorphological types in the southern section of the KPR, including seamounts, ridges, and intermontane valleys, etc. Among them, seven independent seamount groups are divided by five large troughs, forming an overall geomorphological pattern of seven abyssal seamount groups and five troughs. This reflects the geomorphological features of a deep oceanic ridge. Intramontane basins and intermontane valleys in the southern section of the KPR are covered by evenly thick sediments. In contrast, sediments in ridges and seamounts in this section are thin or even missing, with slumps developing locally. Therefore, the sediments are discontinuous and unevenly developed. The KPR formed under the control of tectonism such as volcanic activities and plate movements. In addition, exogenic forces such as underflow scouring and sedimentation also play a certain role in shaping seafloor landforms in the KPR.
This study aims to comprehensively assess the environmental risks of microplastics in the Yellow River, achieving the following results through comprehensive research. The average microplastic abundances in the river waters and sediments are 5358–654000 n/m3 and 43.57–615 items/kg, respectively, and there are fewer microplastics in water samples than in sediments. Microplastics in the study area can be divided into five types according to their occurrence morphologies, namely fragments, foams, films, fibers, and particles. The most widely distributed pollution types in sediments include debris, fibers, and particles. In contrast, fibers are the dominant type in water samples, accounting for 68.18%‒98.93%. The chemical components of the microplastics include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polyvinyl chloride. The microplastics are in four colors, with white accounting for a higher proportion. The grain size of the microplastics in tributaries or lakes of the Yellow River is less than 2 mm, which makes them liable to enter organisms for enrichment. Furthermore, the sources of the microplastics are closely related to agricultural and industrial production and biological activities in habitats and exhibit seasonal and hydrological characteristics. The microplastics in the study area show the adsorption of metals and nonmetals to different degrees, which increases the pollution risks of heavy metals combined with microplastics. In addition, microplastics can accumulate in organisms in the Yellow River and cause physical, biochemical, and other damage to aquatic organisms, thus further posing carcinogenic risks to human beings. Therefore, it is necessary to study, monitor, and control the pollution and effects of microplastics in the Yellow River, in order to provide theoretical references for the control of pollution and ecological risk of microplastics in the river.
The Cenozoic basalts with OIB-affinity in northern marginal region of the North China Craton are thought to experience minor even no crustal contamination during the magma evolution. The whole-rock Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes are attributed to a two-component mixing between depleted and enriched mantle sources, while the major element variations are controlled by the fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene. However, in this study, the new Os isotopic data proposes an opposite model for the Cenozoic basalts in northern marginal region of the North China Craton. In this model, the Jining basalts were contaminated by the Archean mafic rocks during the magma storage and ascent. The crustal contamination process is supported by (1) the highly radiogenic Os isotopic compositions, and (2) the positive correlation between 187Os/188Os and 1/Os of the Jining basalts. By modeling the Os isotopic composition of the basalts, an incorporation of < 10% mafic granulites/amphibolites to the parental magma can successfully explain the initial values of highly radiogenic Os. In contrast, the unradiogenic and uniform Os isotopic compositions of the Chifeng basalts suggest negligible crustal contamination. Os isotopic data acts as an indicator of crustal contamination during magma evolution, providing us a novel insight into the evolution of the intra-continental OIB-like basalts worldwide.
The newly discovered medium-scale Huangling uranium deposit is located in the Shuanlong area of the southeast Ordos Basin. This paper presents the systematic geochemical and zircon U-Pb studies on the Zhiluo Formation sandstones in the Huanling area. The data obtained play an important role in deducing the provenance and tectonic setting of the source rocks. The results show that the lower part of the Zhiluo Formation is mainly composed of felsic sedimentary rocks. The source rocks originated from a continental island arc environment in terms of tectonic setting. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons obtained can be roughly divided into three groups: 170‒500 Ma, 1600‒2050 Ma, and 2100‒2650 Ma. Based on the characteristics of trace elements and rare earth elements (REE) and the zircon U-Pb dating results, it is considered that the Cryptozoic Edo provenance of the Zhiluo Formation mainly includes magmatic rocks (such as granodioritic intrusions) and metamorphic rocks (such as gneiss and granulite) in the orogenic belts on the northern margin of the North China Plate and in the Alxa Block. Based on sedimentological and petrological results, it can be concluded that the provenance of clastic sediments in the Zhiluo Formation was in north-south direction. The preconcentration of uranium is relatively low in the Lower Zhiluo Formation in the Huangling area. Meanwhile, the paleocurrent system in the sedimentary period is inconsistent with the ore-bearing flow field in the mineralization period, which restricts the formation of large-scale and super-large-scale uranium deposits and ore zones in the southeast Ordos Basin. The understanding of provenance directions will provide crucial references for the Jurassic prototype recovery and paleo-geomorphology of the Ordos Basin and the prediction of potential uranium reservoirs of the basin.
The Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan Group that is widely exposed in Yimen area, central Yunnan Province is a series of sedimentary sort of low-grade metamorphic rocks interbedded with volcanic rocks, which are closely related to the early tectonic evolution of the Earth. However, its formation era, sedimentary filling sequence, and geotectonic characteristics have always been in dispute. In this study, several rhyolitic tuffaceous slate interlayers with a centimeter-level thickness were found in the previously determined Heishan Formation of the Dongchuan Group located to the western part of Yimen-Luoci fault zone. This paper focuses on the study of the rhyolitic tuffaceous slate in Qifulangqing Village, Tongchang Township, Yimen County. LA-ICP-MS zircon dating was conducted, achieving the crystallization age of magma of 2491 ± 15 Ma and the metamorphic ages of about 2.3 Ga, 2.0 Ga, and 1.8 Ga for the first time. Meanwhile, according to in-situ Hf isotope analysis, the zircon εHf(t) values were determined to range from −3.0 to 7.6, with an average of 2.7. Furthermore, the first-stage Hf model age (TDM1) was determined to be 2513−2916 Ma, indicating that the provenance of the rhyolitic tuffaceous slate is the depleted mantle or juvenile crust between the Middle Mesoarchean and the Late Neoarchean. Therefore, it is believed that the strata of the slate were deposited in the Late Neoarchean, instead of the Mesoproterozoic as determined by previous researchers. Accordingly, it is not appropriate to group the strata into the Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan Group. Instead, they should be classified as the Maolu Formation of the Neoarchean Puduhe Group given the lithologic association and regional information. Furthermore, the magma ages of 2491 ± 15 Ma are highly consistent with the eras of the large-scale Late Neoarchean orogenic magmatic activities on the northern margin of the Yangtze Craton, and thus reflect the orogenic process consisting of subduction and collision from Late Neoarchean to Early Paleoproterozoic. The magmatic activities during this period were possibly caused by the convergence of the supercontinent Kenorland. Meanwhile, the metamorphic ages of 2.3 Ga, 2.0 Ga, and 1.8 Ga are highly consistent with three metamorphic ages of 2.36 Ga, 1.95 Ga, and 1.85 Ga of the northern margin of the Yangtze Craton, indicating that the strata experienced Paleoproterozoic tectonic-thermal events. The study area is located on the eastern margin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and thus was possibly re-transformed by magmatism subjected to the subduction of the Meso-Tethys Ocean during the Early Cretaceous. The discoveries made in this study will provide strong petrological and chronological evidence for analyzing the early crustal evolution of the Yangtze block.
The Nan Suture and Sukhothai Arc Terrane are products of the eastward subduction of the Paleotethyan Ocean during the Late Carboniferous to Triassic. However, their footprints in northwestern Laos are poorly constrained. New geochronological and geochemical data presented in this study demonstrate a Late Permian origin for the andesitic rocks in the B.Xiengnou area rather than Late Triassic. The breccia-bearing andesitic tuff in the B.On ultramafic complex yield a zircon U-Pb age of 260 ± 1.4 Ma, geochemically displaying a MORB-like signature. The andesitic tuff in the B.Kiophoulan-B.Houayhak belt gave the U-Pb age of 254 ± 1.3 Ma, with arc-like geochemical affinity. By combining geochronological and geochemical data from the Nan Suture and Sukhothai Arc Terrane, the authors suggest that the andesitic rocks in the B.On ultramafic complex formed in a back-arc basin background, which connected the Jinghong and Nan back-arc basin during the Permian; while the andesitic tuff in the B.Kiophoulan-B.Houayhak belt erupted in the Sukhothai continental arc setting.
Source rock assessment is a key step in any petroleum exploration activity. The results of Rock-Eval analysis showed that Sarchahan Formation was in the late oil window, while the Faraghun and Zakeen Formations were just in the early stages of the oil window. Furthermore, Sarchahan, Zakeen and Faraghun Formations exhibited different kerogen types (types-Ⅱ, types-Ⅲ and type-Ⅲ, respectively). Refining the kinetic parameters using the OPTKIN software, the error function returned error values below 0.1, indicating accurate optimization of the kinetic parameters. Based on the obtained values of activation energy, it was clear that Sarchahan Formation contained type-Ⅱ kerogen with an activation energy of 48–52 kcal/mol, while Zakeen and Faraghun Formations contained type-III kerogen with activation energies of 70–80 kcal/mol and 44–56 kcal/mol, respectively. The geographical distribution of the samples studied in this work, it was found that the organic matter (OM) quantity and quality increased as one moved toward the Coastal Fars in Sarchahan Formation. The same trend was observed as one moved from the southern coasts of Iran toward the shaly and coaly portions of Faraghun Formation in the center of the Persian Gulf.
The Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Bangweulu Block has long been controversial. Paleoproterozoic granites consisting of the basement complex of the Bangweulu Block are widely exposed in northeastern Zambia, and they are the critical media for studying the tectonic evolution of the Bangweulu Block. This study systematically investigated the petrography, zircon U-Pb chronology, and petrogeochemistry of the granitoid extensively exposed in the Lunte area, northeastern Zambia. The results show that the granitoid in the area formed during 2051±13–2009±20 Ma as a result of Paleoproterozoic magmatic events. Geochemical data show that the granites in the area mainly include syenogranites and monzogranites of high-K calc-alkaline series and are characterized by high SiO2 content (72.68%‒73.78%) and K2O/Na2O ratio (1.82‒2.29). The presence of garnets, the high aluminum saturation index (A/CNK is 1.13‒1.21), and the 1.27%‒1.95% of corundum molecules jointly indicate that granites in the Lunte area are S-type granites. Rare earth elements in all samples show a rightward inclination and noticeably negative Eu-anomalies (δEu = 0.16‒0.40) and are relatively rich in light rare earth elements. Furthermore, the granites are rich in large ion lithophile elements such as Rb, Th, U, and K and are depleted in Ba, Sr, and high field strength elements such as Ta and Nb. In addition, they bear low contents of Cr (6.31×10−6‒10.8×10−6), Ni (2.87×10−6‒4.76×10−6), and Co (2.62×10−6‒3.96×10−6). These data lead to the conclusion that the source rocks are meta-sedimentary rocks. Combining the above results and the study of regional tectonic evolution, the authors suggest that granitoid in the Lunte area were formed in a tectonic environment corresponding to the collision between the Tanzania Craton and the Bangweulu Block. The magmatic activities in this period may be related to the assembly of the Columbia supercontinent.
The widely-developed, mixed clastic-carbonate succession in the northern Qaidam Basin records the paleo-environment changes under the glacial activity during the Late Paleozoic icehouse period in the context of regional tectonic stability, however, the depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy characteristics of the mixed deposits is rarely reported and still not clear. Combined the latest drilling wells data, we analyzed the sedimentary and stratigraphic characterization of the mixed strata via detailed field outcrops and core observations and thin section microscopic observations and recognized three depositional systems, including progradational coastal system, incised valley system, and carbonate-dominated marine shelf system, and identified four third-order sequences, SQ1, SQ2, SQ3 and SQ4, consisting of LST, TST, and HST. The depositional environment is overall belonged to marine-continental transition context and shifted from marine to continental environment frequently, showing an evolutionary pattern from marine towards terrestrial-marine transition and then back into the marine environment again in the long-term, which was controlled by the regional tectonic subsidence and the high-frequency and large-amplitude sea-level changes due to the Late Paleozoic glacial activity. The result is of significance in understanding the evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the sedimentation-climate response.
The Jiaodong Peninsula in Shandong Province, China is the world’s third-largest gold metallogenic area, with cumulative proven gold resources exceeding 5000 t. Over the past few years, breakthroughs have been made in deep prospecting at a depth of 500‒2000 m, particularly in the Sanshandao area where a huge deep gold orebody was identified. Based on previous studies and the latest prospecting progress achieved by the project team of this study, the following results are summarized. (1) 3D geological modeling results based on deep drilling core data reveal that the Sanshandao gold orefield, which was previously considered to consist of several independent deposits, is a supergiant deposit with gold resources of more than 1200 t (including 470 t under the sea area). The length of the major orebody is nearly 8 km, with a greatest depth of 2312 m below sea level and a maximum length of more than 3 km along their dip direction. (2) Thick gold orebodies in the Sanshandao gold deposit mainly occur in the specific sections of the ore-controlling fault where the fault plane changes from steeply to gently inclined, forming a stepped metallogenic model from shallow to deep level. The reason for this strong structural control on mineralization forms is that when ore-forming fluids migrated along faults, the pressure of fluids greatly fluctuated in fault sections where the fault dip angle changed. Since the solubility of gold in the ore-forming fluid is sensitive to fluid pressure, these sections along the fault plane serve as the target areas for deep prospecting. (3) Thermal uplifting-extensional structures provide thermodynamic conditions, migration pathways, and deposition spaces for gold mineralization. Meanwhile, the changes in mantle properties induced the transformation of the geochemical properties of the lower crust and magmatic rocks. This further led to the reactivation of ore-forming elements, which provided rich materials for gold mineralization. (4) It can be concluded from previous research results that the gold mineralization in the Jiaodong gold deposits occurred at about 120 Ma, which was superimposed by nonferrous metals mineralization at 118‒111 Ma. The fluids were dominated by primary mantle water or magmatic water. Metamorphic water occurred in the early stage of the gold mineralization, while the fluid composition was dominated by meteoric water in the late stage. The S, Pb, and Sr isotopic compositions of the ores are similar to those of ore-hosting rocks, indicating that the ore-forming materials mainly derive from crustal materials, with the minor addition of mantle-derived materials. The gold deposits in the Jiaodong Peninsula were formed in an extensional tectonic environment during the transformation of the physical and chemical properties of the lithospheric mantle, which is different from typical orogenic gold deposits. Thus, it is proposed that they are named “Jiaodong-type” gold deposits.
Climate change is a common problem in human society. The Chinese government promises to peak carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 and strives to achieve carbon neutralization by 2060. The proposal of the goal of carbon peak and carbon neutralization has led China into the era of climate economy and set off a green change with both opportunities and challenges. On the basis of expounding the objectives and specific connotation of China’s carbon peak and carbon neutralization, this paper systematically discusses the main implementation path and the prospect of China’s carbon peak and carbon neutralization. China’s path to realizing carbon neutralization includes four directions: (1) in terms of carbon dioxide emission control: energy transformation path, energy conservation, and emission reduction path; (2) for increasing carbon sink: carbon capture, utilization, and storage path, ecological governance, and land greening path; (3) in key technology development: zero-carbon utilization, coal new energy coupling, carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS), energy storage technology and other key technology paths required to achieve carbon peak and carbon neutralization; (4) from the angle of policy development: Formulate legal guarantees for the government to promote the carbon trading market; Formulate carbon emission standards for enterprises and increase publicity and education for individuals and society. Based on practicing the goal and path of carbon peak and carbon neutralization, China will vigorously develop low carbon and circular economy and promote green and high-quality economic development; speed up to enter the era of fossil resources and promoting energy transformation; accelerate the integrated innovation of green and low-carbon technologies and promote carbon neutrality.