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A three dimensional Moho depth model beneath the Yemeni highlands and rifted volcanic margins of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, Southwest Arabia
Amin Noman Al Kadasi
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2023001
[Abstract](1913) [FullText HTML] (708) [PDF 10984KB](18)
Knowing Moho discontinuity undulation is fundamental to understand mechanisms of lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction, extensional tectonism and crustal deformation in volcanic passive margins, such as the study area which is located in the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula bounded by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. In this work, a 3D Moho depth model of the study area is constructed by inverting gravity data from the Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008) using Parker-Oldenburg algorithm. This model indicates the shallow zone is situated at depths of 20 km to 24 km beneath coastal plains whereas the deep zone located below the plateau at depths of 30 km to 35 km and its deepest part coincides mainly Dhamar-Rada'a Quaternary volcanic field. The results also indicate two channels of hot magmatic materials joining both the Sana'a-Amran Quaternary volcanic field and the Late Miocene Jabal An Nar volcanic area with the Dhamar-Rada'a volcanic field. This conclusion supported by the widespread geothermal activity (of mantle origin) distributed along these channels, isotopic data and the upper mantle low velocity zones indicated by earlier studies.
An integrated north–south paleo-Dadu-Anning River: New insights from bulk major and trace element analyses of the Xigeda Formation
Yong Zheng, Hai-bing Li, Jia-wei Pan, Ping Wang, Ya Lai, Zheng Gong
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2023027
[Abstract](643) [FullText HTML] (510) [PDF 7042KB](5)
The Xianshuihe-Anninghe fault extents SE–S and constitutes the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. However, the associated Dadu River does not flow following the fault, but makes a 90º turn within a distance of 1 km at Shimian, heading east, and joins the Yangtze River, finally flowing into the East China Sea. Adjacent to the abrupt turn, a low and wide pass near the Daqiao reservoir at Mianning separates the N–S course of the Dadu River from the headwater of the Anning River which then flows south into the Yunnan Province along the Anninghe fault. Therefore, many previous studies assumed southward flow of the paleo-Dadu River from the Shimian to the Anning River. However, evidences for the capture of the integrated N–S paleo-Dadu-Anning River, its timing, and causes are still insufficient. This study explored the paleo-drainage pattern of the Dadu and Anning Rivers based on bulk mineral and geochemical analyses of the large quantities of fluvial/lacustrine sediments along the trunk of the Dadu and Anning Rivers. Similar with sands in the modern Dadu River, the Xigeda sediments also exhibit a granitoid affinity with the bulk major mineral compositions of quartz (>50%), anorthite (about 10%), orthoclase (about 5%), muscovite (about 5%), and clinochlore (about 4%). Correspondingly, bulk major elements show high SiO2, with all samples >60%, and some of them >70%, low TiO2 (≤0.75%), P2O5 (≤0.55%), FeO* (≤5%), and relatively high CaO (1.02%–8.51%), Na2O (1.60%–2.52%), and K2O (2.17%–2.71%), with a uniform REE patterns. Therefore, synthesizing all these results indicate that these lacustrine sediments have similar material sources, which are mainly derived from its course in the Songpan-Ganzi flysch block, implying that the paleo-Dadu originally flowed southward into the Anning River and provided materials to the Xigeda ancient lake. The rearrangement of the paleo-Dadu River appears to be closely related to the locally focused uplift driven by strong activities of the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system.
The accumulation characteristics and exploration potential of oil and gas in the back-arc basin of Japan under the background of high heat flow
Jian-qiang Wang, Jie Liang, Jian-wen Chen, Qing-fang Zhao, Yin-guo Zhang, Jian-wei Zhang, Sen Li, Chang-qing Yang, Jian Zhang, Jing Sun, Chuan-sheng Yang, Yong Yuan, Lee-Jel Jiang
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022067
[Abstract](2525) [FullText HTML] (1060) [PDF 2583KB](12)
The Sea of Japan is located in the southeast margin of Eurasia, in the triangle area of the western Pacific Ocean. Due to the interaction of the Pacific plate, Eurasian plate and Philippine plate, its tectonic environment is complex, forming a typical trench-arc-basin system. At present, 148 oil and gas fields have been discovered in Japan, with an oil and gas resource of 255.78×106 t, showing a good prospect for oil and gas exploration. Based on the previous research and the recently collected geological and geophysical data, the characteristics of tectonic-sedimentary evolution and geothermal field in the basins around the Sea of Japan are analyzed. The results show that the tectonic evolution of the basin is mainly controlled by plate subduction and back-arc oceanic crust expansion, and it mainly undergone four tectonic-sedimentary evolution stages: Subduction period, basin development period, subsidence period and compression deformation period. The overall heat flow value of Japan Sea is high, and it is distributed annularly along Yamato Ridge. The geothermal heat flow value is about 50–130 MW/m2, and the average heat flow is 75.9±19.8 MW/m2, which has a typical “hot basin”. The high heat flow background provides unique thermal evolution conditions for hydrocarbon generation, which leads to the high temperature and rapid evolution. The authors summarized as “early hydrocarbon generation, rapid maturity and shallow and narrow hydrocarbon generation window”. The type of oil and gas is mainly natural gas, and it mainly distributed in Neogene oil and gas reservoirs. The trap types are mainly structural traps, lithologic traps and composite traps. In addition, the pre-Neogene bedrock oil and gas reservoirs also show a good exploration prospect. The resource prospecting indicates that Niigata Basin, Ulleung Basin and kitakami Basin are the main target areas for future exploration and development.
Plume-lithosphere interaction of Comei Large Igneous Province: Evidence from two types of mafic dykes in Gyangze, south Tibet
Ya-ying Wang, Ling-sen Zeng, Li-e Gao, Li-long Yan, Ling-hao Zhao, Jia-hao Gao, Ying-long Di, Guang-xu Li, Yi-hong Tian
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2023023
[Abstract](830) [FullText HTML] (670) [PDF 3760KB](5)
Two suites of mafic dykes, T1193-A and T1194-A, outcrop in Gyangze area, southeast Tibet. They are in the area of Comei LIP and have indistinguishable field occurrences with two other dykes in Gyangze, T0902 dyke with 137.7±1.3 Ma zircon age and T0907 dyke with 142±1.4 Ma zircon age reported by Wang YY et al. (2016), indicating coeval formation time. Taking all the four diabase dykes into consideration, two different types, OIB-type and weak enriched-type, can be summarized. The “OIB-type” samples, including T1193-A and T0907 dykes, show OIB-like geochemical features and have initial Sr-Nd isotopic values similar with most mafic products in Comei Large Igneous Provinces (LIP), suggesting that they represent melts directly generated from the Kerguelen mantle plume. The “weak enriched-type” samples, including T1194-A and T0902 dykes, have REEs and trace element patterns showing within-plate affinity but have obvious Nb-Ta-Ti negative anomalies. They show uniform lower εNd(t) values (−6‒−2) and higher 87Sr/86Sr(t) values (0.706‒0.709) independent of their MgO variation, indicating one enriched mantle source. Considering their closely spatial and temporal relationship with the widespread Comei LIP magmatic products in Tethyan Himalaya, these “weak enriched-type” samples are consistent with mixing of melts from mantle plume and the above ancient Tethyan Himalaya subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) in different proportions. These weak enriched mafic rocks in Comei LIP form one special rock group and most likely suggest large scale hot mantle plume-continental lithosphere interaction. This process may lead to strong modification of the Tethyan Himalaya lithosphere in the Early Cretaceous.
Heavy metal contamination assessment in marine sediments in the Northwest coast of Sabah, Malaysia
Ling Sin-Yi, Junaidi Asis, Mohd-Harun Abdullah, Baba Musta
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022079
[Abstract](1906) [FullText HTML] (961) [PDF 1413KB](14)
Heavy metal contents along the Northwest coast of Sabah were determined to interpret the contamination level in the marine sediment. The metal abundance is regulated by the physico-chemical properties such as the average sediment pH (7.82, 9.00 and 8.99), organic matter (0.62%, 1.60%, and 2.27%), moisture content (25.00%, 29.70%, and 15.00%) and sandy texture in Kota Belud, Kudat and Mantanani Island, respectively. The major elements show Ca>Fe>Mg>Al>Mn for all study sites, while the heavy metals show Ni>Cr>Zn>Cu>Co>Pb, Cr>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Co and Zn>Pb>Cr>Ni, for Kota Belud, Kudat and Mantanani Island, respectively. The contamination degree of heavy metals was evaluated by using the Sediment Quality Assessment (SQA). The SQA parameters indicated none to moderate contamination in Kota Belud that shows Class 0, Class 1 and Class 2 contamination. The parameters also indicated none to low contamination in Kudat and Mantanani Island that show only Class 0 contamination. The enrichment factor (EF) suggested minor to moderately severe metal enrichment by anthropogenic sources in Kota Belud, whereas only minor enrichment in Kudat and Mantanani Island. The modified contamination degree (MCD<1.5) and pollution load index (0≤PLI<1) indicating only low pollution level in the marine sediments for all study sites. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the physico-chemical parameters of sediments, (2) interpret the heavy metal contents and (3) evaluate the sediment quality.
The morphology and histology of a juvenile Sinokannemeyeria from the Middle Triassic Ermaying Formation of Shanxi, North China
Li-juan Xie, Jian Yi, Jian-ru Shi, Zhi-shuai Kang, Shi-chao Xu, Run-fu Wang
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2023030
[Abstract](2587) [FullText HTML] (767) [PDF 17709KB](60)
Kannemeyeriiformes were dominated tetrapods in the Middle Triassic terrestrial faunae of China. Although abundant materials of Sinokannemeyeria have been collected, their postcranial morphology information is not well studied, especially the juveniles. In this paper, the authors describe an articulated Sinokannemeyeria skeleton from the Middle Triassic Ermaying Formation and report the histological microstructure of its femur. This specimen represents a late-stage juvenile based on the histological information. It provides the postcranial information of the juvenile Sinokannemeyeria for the first time.
Landslide susceptibility assessment in Western Henan based on a comparison of conventional and integrated learning
Cao Wen-geng, Fu Yu, Dong Qiu-yao, Wang Hai-gang, Ren Yu, Li Ze-yan, Du Yue-ying
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2023013
[Abstract](1095) [FullText HTML] (858) [PDF 3519KB](6)
Landslide is a serious natural disaster next only to earthquake and flood, which will cause a great threat to people’s lives and property safety. The traditional research of landslide disaster based on experience driving or statistical model and its assessment results are subjective , difficult to quantify, and no pertinence. As a new research method for landslide susceptibility assessment, machine learning can greatly improve the landslide susceptibility model’s accuracy by constructing statistical models. Taking Western Henan for example, the study selected 16 landslide influencing factors such as topography, geological environment, hydrological conditions, and human activities. And 11 landslide factors with the most significant influence on the landslide were selected by the recursive feature elimination (RFE) method. There are five machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines (SVM), Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)) were used to construct the spatial distribution model of landslide susceptibility. The models were evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve and statistical index. After analysis and comparison, the XGBoost model (AUC 0.8759) performed the best and was suitable for dealing with regression problems. The model had a high adaptability to landslide data. According to the landslide susceptibility map of the five models, the overall distribution can be observed. The extremely high and high susceptibility areas are distributed in the Funiu Mountain range in the southwest, the Xiaoshan Mountain range in the west, and the Yellow River basin in the north. These areas have large terrain fluctuations, complicated geological structural environments and frequent human engineering activities. The extremely high and highly prone areas were 12043.3 km2 and 3087.45 km2, accounting for 47.61% and 12.20% of the total area of the study area, respectively. Our study reflects the distribution of landslide susceptibility in western Henan Province, which provides a scientific basis for regional disaster warning, prediction, and resource protection. The study has important practical significance for subsequent landslide disaster management.
Tectonic evolution and accumulation characteristics of Carboniferous shale gas in Yadu-Ziyun-Luodian aulacogen, South China
Kun Yuan, Wen-hui Huang, Ting Wang, Shi-zhen Li, Xiang-can Sun, Xin-xin Fang, Jun-ping Xiao, Jun Guo
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022059
[Abstract](2546) [FullText HTML] (1303) [PDF 6885KB](14)
The Yadu-Ziyun-Luodian aulacogen (YZLA) developed into being NW-trending in the Late Paleozoic, and was considered as an important passive continental margin aulacogen in Guizhou Province, South China. This tectonic zone is considered as a large intracontinental thrust-slip tectonic unit, which has undergone a long period of development. It was ultimately determined in the Yanshanian, where the typical Upper Paleozoic marine shales were deposited. In 2021, Well QSD-1 was deployed in the Liupanshui area at the northwest margin of the aulacogen, and obtained a daily shale gas flow of 11011 m3 in the Carboniferous Dawuba Formation. It thus achieved a breakthrough in the invesgation of shale gas in the Lower Carboniferous in South China, revealing relatively good gas-bearing properties and broad exploration prospects of the aulacogen. Being different from the Lower Paleozoic strata in the Sichuan Basin and the Yichang area of the Middle Yangtze, the development of the Carboniferous Dawuba Formation in the aulacogen exhibits the following characteristics: (1) The Lower Carboniferous shale is thick and widely distributed, with interbedded shale and marlstone of virous thickness; (2) The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the shale in the Dawuba Formation ranges from 1% to 5%, with an average of 2%, and the thermal maturity of organic matter (Ro) varies from 1% to 4%, with an average of 2.5%, indicating good hydrocarbon generation capacity; (3) The main shale in the aulacogen was formed during the fault subsidence stage from the Middle Devonian to the Early Permian. Although the strong compression and deformation during the late Indosinian-Himalayan played a certain role in destroying the formed shale gas reservoirs, comparative analysis suggests that the area covered by the current Triassic strata has a low degree of destruction. It therefore provides good conditions for shale gas preservation, which can be regarded as a favorable area for the next exploration.
Changes of coastline and tidal flat and its implication for ecological protection under human activities: Take China's Bohai Bay as an example
Yong Li, Ming-zheng Wen, Heng Yu, Peng Yang, Fei-cui Wang, Fu Wang
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2023007
[Abstract](1253) [FullText HTML] (963) [PDF 11916KB](5)
The change processes and trends of shoreline and tidal flat forced by human activities are essential issues for the sustainability of coastal area, which is also of great significance for understanding coastal ecological environment changes and even global changes. Based on field measurements, combined with Linear Regression (LR) model and Inverse Distance Weighing (IDW) method, this paper presents detailed analysis on the change history and trend of the shoreline and tidal flat in Bohai Bay. The shoreline faces a high erosion chance under the action of natural factors, while the tidal flat faces a different erosion and deposition patterns in Bohai Bay due to the impact of human activities. The implication of change rule for ecological protection and recovery is also discussed. Measures should be taken to protect the coastal ecological environment. The models used in this paper show a high correlation coefficient between observed and modeling data, which means that this method can be sued to predict the changing trend of shoreline and tidal flat. The research results of present study can provide scientific supports for future coastal protection and management.
Evaluation of reservoir environment by chemical properties of reservoir water‒A case study of Chang 6 reservoir in Ansai oilfield, Ordos Basin, China
Zhi-bo Zhang, Ying Xu, Di-fei Zhao, Hao-ming Liu, Wei-cheng Jiang, Dan-ling Chen, Teng-rui Jin
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022042
[Abstract](3103) [FullText HTML] (1667) [PDF 3310KB](20)
The Ordos Basin is the largest continental multi-energy mineral basin in China, which is rich in coal, oil and gas, and uranium resources. The exploitation of mineral resources is closely related to reservoir water. The chemical properties of reservoir water are very important for reservoir evaluation and are significant indicators of the sealing of reservoir oil and gas resources. Therefore, the caprock of the Chang 6 reservoir in the Yanchang Formation was evaluated. The authors tested and analyzed the chemical characteristics of water samples selected from 30 wells in the Chang 6 reservoir of Ansai Oilfield in the Ordos Basin. The results show that the Chang 6 reservoir water in Ansai Oilfield is dominated by calcium-chloride water type with a sodium chloride coefficient of generally less than 0.5. The chloride magnesium coefficients are between 33.7 and 925.5, most of which are greater than 200. The desulfurization coefficients range from 0.21 to 13.4, with an average of 2.227. The carbonate balance coefficients are mainly concentrated below 0.01, with an average of 0.008. The calcium and magnesium coefficients are between 0.08 and 0.003, with an average of 0.01. Combined with the characteristics of the four-corner layout of the reservoir water, the above results show that the graphics are basically consistent. The study indicates that the Chang 6 reservoir in Ansai Oilfield in the Ordos Basin is a favorable block for oil and gas storage with good sealing properties, great preservation conditions of oil and gas, and high pore connectivity.
Melt extraction and mineralization: A case study from the Shuangjianzishan supergiant Ag-Pb-Zn deposit (208 Mt), Inner Mongolia, NE China
Meng Dai, Guang-sheng Yan, Yong-sheng Li, Wen-bin Jia, Fan-yu Qi, Xing Ju
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022044
[Abstract](1465) [FullText HTML] (1122) [PDF 6426KB](8)
The supergiant Shuangjianzishan (SJZ) Ag-Pb-Zn deposit is in the southern segment of the Great Hinggan Range (SGHR), Northeast China. Previous studies suggest the ore-forming material and fluid originated from the magmatic system, and the mineralization age was consistent with the diagenetic age. However, the relationship between granitic magmatism and mineralization is still unclear in the SJZ. In this study, C-H-O-He-Ar and in-situ S-Pb isotope analyses were conducted to determine the sources of ore-forming fluids and materials, which were combing with geochemistry data of SJZ granitoids from previous studies to constrain the relationship between the magmatism and the mineralization. The C-H-O-He-Ar-S-Pb isotopic compositions suggested the SJZ ore-forming material and fluids were derived from a magmatic source, which has mixed a small amount of mantle-derived materials. In addition, the disseminated sulfide form the syenogranite has comparable S-Pb isotopic composition with the sulfide minerals from ore veins, suggesting the generation of the SJZ ore-forming fluids has a close relationship with the syenogranite magmatism. Combing with the geochemical characters of the syenogranite, the authors proposed that the mantle-derived fingerprint of the SJZ ore-forming fluid might be caused by the syenogranite magma derived form partial melting of the juvenile lower crust, and the syenogranite melt extraction further concentrated the fertilized fluids, which is crucial to mineralization of the SJZ deposit.
δ13Corg perturbations preserved by the Datangpo Formation interglacial in South China with implications for stratigraphic correlation and carbon cycle
Xian-yin An, Yu-jie Zhang, Li Tian, Shi-lei Liu, Qi-yu Wang, Yong Du, Hu-yue Song, Jun Hu
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022069
[Abstract](2758) [FullText HTML] (1490) [PDF 3500KB](32)
Palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of the Cryogenian Period have attracted attention in relation to the debated “Snowball Earth” hypothesis and the early evolution of metazoan life. The carbon cycle and redox conditions of the Sturtian-Marinoan non-glacial interval have been subjected to much controversy in the past decades because of the difficulty of the lack of a high-resolution stratigraphic correlation scheme. As one of the typical Sturtian-Marinoan interglacial deposits, the Datangpo Formation was widely distributed in South China with shales continuously deposited. The previous zircon dating data of the Datangpo Formation provide important ages for global constrain of the Sturtian-Marinoan non-glacial interval. Here we present a high-resolution straitigraphic study of the organic carbon isotopes, of the Datangpo Formation from a drill core section in northern Guizhou Province. Based on measured episodic δ13Corg perturbations, three positive shifts and three negative excursions are identified. A δ13Corg-based chemostratigraphic correlation scheme is proposed herein that works well for the Datangpo Formation regionally. Meanwhile, the δ13Corg vertical gradients changed dynamically throughout the formation. This discovery implies that a significant ocean circulation overturn might have occurred in the upper Datangpo Formation, coinciding with the potential oxygenation.
Late Quaternary fluvial terrace formation in the Luan River drainage basin, north China and its possible linkages with climate change and tectonic activation
Yu-chen Tian, Xu-jiao Zhang, Zhi-qiang Yin, Hai Shao, Ming-xu Gu, Yingying -Ding, Chao Peng, Xiang-ge Zhang
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022075
[Abstract](2512) [FullText HTML] (1126) [PDF 2174KB](19)
The Luan River is the most important water system in north-eastern Hebei Province, China and is located in the transitional zone of the Eastern Yan Mountains, North China Plain and Songliao Plain. The well-developed river terraces of its tributary, the Yixun River, provide excellent information for studying neotectonics and climate change. There are seven terraces in the lower reaches of the Yixun River, numbered T7–T1. The optically stimulated luminescence dating results of 23 samples show that terraces T7–T2 formed at 111.36±5.83 ka, 78.20±4.45 ka, 65.29±4.15 ka, 56.44±3.07 ka, 40.08±2.66 ka, and 13.14±0.76 ka, respectively. A comparison with the oxygen isotope curves of deep-sea sediments reveals that the sediment formation of each terrace corresponded to cold periods of marine isotope stages MIS 4 and MIS 2 and the relatively cold periods of MIS 5e, MIS 3, and MIS 1. Since the Late Pleistocene, the incision rate of the Yixun River has ranged from 0.371–1.740 mm/a. During the formation of T7–T6, T5–T4, T4–T3, and T3–T2, the incision rate was low. However, in the two stages during which T6–T5 and T2–T1 formed (13.14±0.76 ka to 0.58±0.08 ka and 10.79±0.64 ka to 0.16±0.01 ka), these rates reached 1.554 mm/a and 1.592–1.740 mm/a, respectively. At approximately 30 ka, the activity of the Langying Fault increased, leading to footwall uplift. The river gathered in the north of Langying to form the ancient Erdaowan Lake, which resulted in the drying of the river in the lower reaches of the Yixun River during the last glacial maximum without forming river deposits. In the Early Holocene, headward erosion in the lower reaches of the Yixun River was enhanced, which resulted in the disappearance of the lake, and incised meandering formed due to increased neotectonism. Based on the analyses of river incision and the formation of ancient lakes and incised meandering, it was inferred that there have been three periods of strong tectonism in the river basin since the Late Pleistocene.
Relationship between spatio-temporal evolution of soil pH and geological environment/surface cover in the eastern Nenjiang River Basin of northeastern China during the past 30 years
Guo-dong Liu, Ming-hui Wei, Ze Yang, Hong-ye Xiao, Yi-he Zhang, Na-na Fang
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022062
[Abstract](2735) [FullText HTML] (1736) [PDF 6323KB](22)
To illuminate the spatio-temporal variation characteristics and geochemical driving mechanism of soil pH in the Nenjiang River Basin, the National Multi-objective Regional Geochemical Survey data of topsoil, the Second National Soil Survey data and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were analyzed. The areas of neutral and alkaline soil decreased by 21100 km2 and 30500 km2, respectively, while that of strongly alkaline, extremely alkaline, and strongly acidic soil increased by 19600 km2, 18200 km2, and 15500 km2, respectively, during the past 30 years. NDVI decreased with the increase of soil pH when soil pH > 8.0, and it was reversed when soil pH < 5.0. There were significant differences in soil pH with various surface cover types, which showed an ascending order: Arbor < reed < maize < rice < high and medium-covered meadow < low-covered meadow < Puccinellia. The weathering products of minerals rich in K2O, Na2O, CaO, and MgO entered into the low plain and were enriched in different parts by water transportation and lake deposition, while Fe and Al remained in the low hilly areas, which was the geochemical driving mechanism. The results of this study will provide scientific basis for making scientific and rational decisions on soil acidification and salinization.
Microbial community composition and environmental response characteristics of typical brackish groundwater in North China Plain
Huai-sheng Zhang, Wu-tian Cai, Feng Guo, Chao Bian, Fu-dong Liu, Lei Zhang, Jin-wei Liu, Miao Zhao
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022073
[Abstract](2582) [FullText HTML] (1873) [PDF 1277KB](14)
To reveal the microbial community composition of regional shallow porous brackish groundwater and its response characteristics to groundwater environment, the first and second aquifers in Taocheng District, Hengshui City were selected, and 10 groundwater source samples were collected for hydrochemical analysis and microbial 16S RNA gene V4V5 regional sequencing. The results showed that the shallow brackish groundwater in the study area is weakly alkaline and has high ion content. The hydrochemical types are SO4·Cl-Na·Mg type and HCO3·Cl-Na·Mg type as a whole. The spatial zonation of the abundance and diversity of groundwater microorganisms is obvious. The number of endemic bacteria in groundwater from upstream, midstream to downstream is 11, 135 and 22 respectively, with a total of 22 bacteria. Proteobacteria is the most dominant in groundwater level (38.82%86.88%), and there are obvious differences in different sections. At the genus level, the main dominant species in each group and sample are Pseudomonas and Hydrogenophaga. In terms of composition difference, Pseudohongiella, Pseudorhodobacter and Limnohabitans are the representatives of UR, MR and LR. On the whole, the composition of flora in groundwater in the study area is sensitive and closely related to hydrochemical processes. Species abundance is affected by alkaline and high salinity environmental indicators, while species diversity is related to depth and dissolved oxygen in weak reduction environment.
Lateral bearing characteristics of subsea wellh ead assembly in the hydrate trial production engineering
Jing Zeng, Wen-wei Xie, Bei-bei Kou, Jing-an Lu, Xing-chen Li, De-jun Cai, Hao-xian Shi, Kei-wei Zhang, Hua-qing Liu, Jin Li, Bo Li
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022057
[Abstract](2753) [FullText HTML] (2128) [PDF 6679KB](19)
Conductor and suction anchor are the key equipment providing bearing capacity in the field of deep-water drilling or offshore engineering, which have the advantages of high operation efficiency and short construction period. In order to drill a horizontal well in the shallow hydrate reservoir in the deep water, the suction anchor wellhead assembly is employed to undertake the main vertical bearing capacity in the second round of hydrate trial production project, so as to reduce the conductor running depth and heighten the kick-off point position. However, the deformation law of the deep-water suction anchor wellhead assembly under the moving load of the riser is not clear, and it is necessary to understand the lateral bearing characteristics to guide the design of its structural scheme. Based on 3D solid finite element method, the solid finite element model of the suction anchor wellhead assembly is established. In the model, the seabed soil is divided into seven layers, the contact between the wellhead assembly and the soil is simulated, and the vertical load and bending moment are applied to the wellhead node to simulate the riser movement when working in the deep water. The lateral bearing stability of conventional wellhead assembly and suction anchor wellhead assembly under the influence of wellhead load is discussed. The analysis results show that the bending moment is the main factor affecting the lateral deformation of the wellhead string; the anti-bending performance from increasing the outer conductor diameter is better than that from increasing the conductor wall thickness; for the subsea wellhead, the suction anchor obviously improves the lateral bearing capacity and reduces the lateral deformation. The conduct of the suction anchor wellhead assembly still needs to be lowered to a certain depth that below the maximum disturbed depth to ensure the lateral bearing stability, Thus, a method for the minimum conductor running depth for the suction anchor wellhead assembly is developed. The field implementations show that compared with the first round of hydrate trial production project, the conductor running depth is increased by 9.42 m, and there is no risk of wellhead overturning during the trial production. The method for determining the minimum conductor running depth in this paper is feasible and will still play an important role in the subsequent hydrate exploration and development.
Tectonic-thermal history and hydrocarbon potential of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea: Insights from borehole apatite fission-track thermochronology
Xiao-yin Tang, Shu-chun Yang, Sheng-biao Hu
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022055
[Abstract](3280) [FullText HTML] (2449) [PDF 2650KB](34)
The Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB) is one of the most petroliferous basins on the northern margin of the South China Sea. Knowledge of the thermal history of the PRMB is significant for understanding its tectonic evolution and for unraveling its poorly studied source-rock maturation history. Our investigations in this study are based on apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology analysis of 12 cutting samples from 4 boreholes. Both AFT ages and length data suggested that the PRMB has experienced quite complicated thermal evolution. Thermal history modeling results unraveled four successive events of heating separated by three stages of cooling since the early Middle Eocene. The cooling events occurred approximately in the Late Eocene, early Oligocene, and the Late Miocene, possibly attributed to the Zhuqiong II Event, Nanhai Event, and Dongsha Event, respectively. The erosion amount during the first cooling stage is roughly estimated to be about 455–712 m, with an erosion rate of 0.08–0.12 mm/a. The second erosion-driven cooling is stronger than the first one, with an erosion amount of about 747–814 m and an erosion rate between about 0.13–0.21 mm/a. The erosion amount calculated related to the third cooling event varies from 800 m to 3419 m, which is speculative due to the possible influence of the magmatic activity.
Design and feasibility analysis of a new completion monitoring technical scheme for natural gas hydrate production tests
Qiu-ping Lu, Yan-jiang Yu, Wen-weiXie, Jin-qiang Liang, Jing-an Lu, Ben-chong Xu, Hao-xian Shi, Hao-yu Yu, Ru-lei Qin, Xing-chen Li, Bin Li
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022045
[Abstract](3982) [FullText HTML] (2992) [PDF 3570KB](18)
As a prerequisite and a guarantee for safe and efficient natural gas hydrates (NGHs) exploitation, it is imperative to effectively determine the mechanical properties of NGHs reservoirs and clarify the law of the change in the mechanical properties with the dissociation of NGHs during NGHs production tests by depressurization. Based on the development of Japan’s two offshore NGHs production tests in vertical wells, this study innovatively proposed a new subsea communication technology—accurate directional connection using a wet-mate connector. This helps to overcome the technical barrier to the communication between the upper and lower completion of offshore wells. Using this new communication technology, this study explored and designed a mechanical monitoring scheme for lower completion (sand screens). This scheme can be used to monitor the tensile stress and radial compressive stress of sand screens caused by NGHs reservoirs in real time, thus promoting the technical development for the rapid assessment and real-time feedback of the in-situ mechanical response of NGHs reservoirs during offshore NGHs production tests by depressurization.
Application of the monitoring and early warning system for internal solitary waves: Take the second natural gas hydrates production test in the South China Sea as an example
Dan-yi Su, Bin-bin Guo, Qian-yong Liang, Chu-jin Liang, Fei-long Lin, Su-meng Jiang, Yi-fei Dong, Xue-min Wu
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022043
[Abstract](4234) [FullText HTML] (2732) [PDF 3014KB](26)
Internal solitary waves (ISWs) contain great energy and have the characteristics of emergency and concealment. To avoid their damage to offshore engineering, a new generation of monitoring and early warning system for ISWs was developed using technologies of double buoys monitoring, intelligent real-time data transmission, and automatic software identification. The system was applied to the second natural gas hydrates (NGHs) production test in the Shenhu Area, South China Sea (SCS) and successfully provided the early warning of ISWs for 173 days (from October 2019 to April 2020). The abrupt changes in the thrust force of the drilling platform under the attack of ISWs were consistent with the early warning information, proving the reliability of this system. A total of 93 ISWs were detected around the drilling platform. Most of them occurred during the spring tides in October–December 2019 and April 2020, while few of them occurred in winter. As suggested by the theoretical model, the full-depth structure of ISWs was a typical current profile of mode-1, and the velocities of wave-induced currents can reach 80 cm/s and 30 cm/s, respectively, in the upper ocean and near the seabed. The ISWs may be primarily generated from the interactions between the topography and semidiurnal tides in the Luzon Strait, and then propagate westward to the drilling platform. This study could serve as an important reference for the early warning of ISWs for offshore engineering construction in the future.
Short Communications (Research Advances)
Discovery of bauxite-type helium source rock in Jinzhong basin, central North China and its resource potential evaluation
Qiao Zhang, Jun-lin Zhou, Yu-hong Li, Ya-zhuo Niu, Wang Guo, Shang-wei Ma, Yun-peng Zhang, Shao-hua Hu, Yu Ding
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2023037
[Abstract](317) [FullText HTML] (282) [PDF 3426KB](2)
Zircon U-Pb age of the volcanic rocks from the Huoshiling Formation in Yingtai Fault Depression, Songliao Basin, China
Cheng-long Wang, Li-bin Song, Hong-qi Yuan
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2023002
[Abstract](1908) [FullText HTML] (1367) [PDF 1635KB](27)
Discovery of the oldest (ca. 2.87 Ga) granitic gneisses in the Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt: Direct evidence for Mesoarchean crust
Kai Wang, Tian-yu Zhao, Shuan-Hong Zhang
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022084
[Abstract](2436) [FullText HTML] (1561) [PDF 1814KB](40)
Column: Review Articles/
Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and crops in a mining area (Au-Ag-Cu-trona-oil et al.) of the Nanyang Basin, Henan Province, China
Qiu-yao Dong, Hao-tian Wen, Pan Wang, Chao Song, Shu-ya Lai, Zhen-jing Yang, Yuan-yi Zhao, Ming-jiang Yan
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022078
[Abstract](2644) [FullText HTML] (1494) [PDF 2494KB](19)
Heavy metal distribution in mining areas has always been a hot research topic due to the special environment of these areas. This study aims to explore the impact of heavy metal pollution on soils and crops in the study area, ensure the safety of local crops and the health of local residents, and provide a basis for the subsequent environmental restoration and the prevention and control of environmental pollution. Based on the analysis of the heavy metal concentrations in local soils and crops, the study investigated the spatial distribution, pollution degrees, and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in the farmland of a mining area in the southeastern Nanyang Basin, Henan province, China explored the sources of heavy metals and assessed the health risks caused by crop intake. The results of this study are as follows. The root soils of crops in the study area suffered heavy metal pollution to varying degrees. The degree of heavy metal pollution in maize fields is higher than that in wheat fields, and both types of fields suffer the most severe Cd pollution. Moreover, the root soils of different crops suffer compound pollution. The root soils in the maize fields suffer severe compound pollution at some sampling positions, whose distribution is similar to that of the mining area. Cd poses the highest potential ecological risks among all heavy metals, and the study area mainly suffers low and moderate comprehensive potential ecological risks. The principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the distribution of Zn, Cd, Pb, and As in soils of the study area is mainly affected by anthropogenic factors such as local mining activities; the distribution of Cr and Ni is primarily controlled by the local geological background; the distribution of Hg is mainly affected by local vehicle exhaust emissions, and the distribution of Cu is influenced by both human activities and the geological background. Different cereal crops in the study area are polluted with heavy metals dominated by Cd and Ni to varying degrees, especially wheat. As indicated by the health risk assessment results, the intake of maize in the study area does not pose significant human health risks; however, Cu has high risks to human health, and the compound heavy metal pollution caused by the intake of wheat in the study area poses risks to the health of both adults and children. Overall, the soils and crops in the study area suffer a high degree of heavy metal pollution, for which mining activities may be the main reason.
Source, migration, distribution, toxicological effects and remediation technologies of arsenic in groundwater in China
Zhen Wang, Hua-ming Guo, Hai-yan Liu, Wei-min Zhang
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022086
[Abstract](2400) [FullText HTML] (1646) [PDF 2977KB](20)
Groundwater with high arsenic (As) content seriously threatens human life and health. Drinking high-As groundwater for a long time will lead to various pathological changes such as skin cancer, liver cancer, and kidney cancer. High-As groundwater has become one of the most serious environmental geological problems in China and even the international community. This paper aims to systematically summarize the sources, migration, distribution, toxicological effects, and treatment techniques of As in natural groundwater in China based on a large number of literature surveys. High-As groundwater in China is mainly distributed in the inland basins in arid and semi-arid environments and the alluvial and lacustrine aquifers in river deltas in humid environments, which are in neutral to weakly alkaline and strongly reducing environments. The content of As in groundwater varies widely, and As(III) is the main form. The main mechanism of the formation of high-As groundwater in China is the reduced dissolution of Fe and Mn oxides under the action of organic matter and primary microorganisms, alkaline environment, intense evaporation and concentration, long-term water-rock interaction, and slow groundwater velocity, which promote the continuous migration and enrichment of As in groundwater. There are obvious differences in the toxicity of different forms of As. The toxic of As(III) is far more than As(V), which is considered to be more toxic than methyl arsenate (MMA) and dimethyl arsenate (DMA). Inorganic As entering the body is metabolized through a combination of methylation (detoxification) and reduction (activation) and catalyzed by a series of methyltransferases and reductases. At present, remediation methods for high-As groundwater mainly include ion exchange technology, membrane filtration technology, biological treatment technology, nanocomposite adsorption technology, electrochemical technology, and so on. All the above remediation methods still have certain limitations, and it is urgent to develop treatment materials and technical means with stronger As removal performance and sustainability. With the joint efforts of scientists and governments of various countries in the future, this worldwide problem of drinking-water As poisoning will be solved as soon as possible. This paper systematically summarizes and discusses the hot research results of natural high-As groundwater, which could provide a reference for the related research of high-As groundwater in China and even the world.
Research Advances
Discovery of ~2.5 Ga zircon U-Pb age from the diabase, Ar Horqin Banner Area, Inner Mongolia: Implications for Neoarchaean crystalline basement of Bainaimiao Arc Belt
Ji-yu Du, Cheng Qian, Wen-bin Wu, Yu-jin Zhang, Chao Zhang, Tao Qin, Yong-fei Ma, Hong-xi You
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022048
[Abstract](1375) [FullText HTML] (1370) [PDF 2512KB](9)
Review Articles
Biophysical warming patterns of an open-top chamber and its short-term influence on a Phragmites wetland ecosystem in China
Xue-yang Yu, Si-yuan Ye, Li-xin Pei, Liu-juan Xie, Ken W. Krauss, Samantha K. Chapman, Hans Brix
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022064
[Abstract](2656) [FullText HTML] (1652) [PDF 187KB](35)
Passive-warming, open-top chambers (OTCs) are widely applied for studying the effects of future climate warming on coastal wetlands. In this study, a set of six OTCs were established at a Phragmites wetland located in the Yellow River Delta of Dongying City, China. With data collected through online transmission and in-situ sensors, the attributes and patterns of realized OTCs warming are demonstrated. The authors also quantified the preliminary influence of experimental chamber warming on plant traits. OTCs produced an elevated average air temperature of 0.8°C (relative to controls) during the growing season (June to October) of 2018, and soil temperatures actually decreased by 0.54°C at a depth of 5 cm and 0.46°C at a depth of 30 cm in the OTCs. Variations in diel patterns of warming depend greatly on the heat sources of incoming radiation in the daytime versus soil heat flux at night. Warming effects were often larger during instantaneous analyses and influenced OTCs air temperatures from −2.5°C to 8.3°C dependent on various meteorological conditions at any given time, ranging from cooling influences from vertical heat exchange and vegetation to radiation-associated warming. Night-time temperature depressions in the OTCs were due to the low turbulence inside OTCs and changes in surface soil-atmosphere heat transfer. Plant shoot density, basal diameter, and biomass of Phragmites decreased by 23.2%, 6.3%, and 34.0%, respectively, under experimental warming versus controls, and plant height increased by 4.3%, reflecting less carbon allocation to stem structures as plants in the OTCs experienced simultaneous wind buffering. While these passive-warming OTCs created the desired warming effects both to the atmosphere and soils, pest damages on the plant leaves and lodging within the OTCs were extensive and serious, creating the need to consider control options for these chambers and the replicated OTCs studies underway in other Chinese Phragmites marshes (Panjin and Yancheng).
Original Article
Invited Review