A study on the detrital mineral composition of stream sediments of the Yangtze River (Changjiang) and Yellow River (Huanghe) shows that, light minerals of the Yangtze River basin were mainly quartz, feldspar, and detritus, the compositional characteristics of light minerals differed among tributaries, the average maturity index was 2.0, the main stream had a generally higher maturity index than tributaries, and the maturity index increased with increasing sediment transport distance; heavy mineral content tended to decrease progressively from the upper stream to lower stream of the Yangtze River, the primary assemblage was magnetite-hornblende-augite-garnet-epidote, and diagnostic minerals of different river basins were capable of indicating the nature and distribution of the source rock. Detrital mineral assemblages in sediments of tributaries and the main stream of the Yellow River were basically similar, exhibiting certain patterns of regional distribution. Primary heavy mineral assemblage was opaque mineral-garnet-epidote-carbonate mineral and alteration mineral. Variations in the contents of garnet, opaque mineral, and hornblende mainly reflected the degree of sedimentary differentiation in suspended sediment and the hydrodynamic intensity of a drainage system. The heavy mineral differentiation index F revealed sedimentary differentiation of diagnostic detrital mineral composition due to changes in regional hydrodynamic intensity and can serve as an indicator for studying the dynamic sedimentary environment of a single-provenance river and the degree of sedimentary differentiation of its detrital minerals. Changes in detrital mineral content of the Yellow River was not completely controlled by provenance but reflected gravity sorting of the detrital mineral due to variations in the ephemeral river hydrodynamic intensity and sedimentary environment, therefore caution must be exercised in using the detrital mineral composition of marginal sea to determine the contribution of the materials at the estuary of the Yellow River.
The Wujiatai Formation, which is well exposed in Huangjiatai-Xichahe region of the northern Kongling area of central Yangtze Craton, is a suite of epimetamorphic conglomerates to pebbly sandstones to fine sandstone-dolostones deposited in littoral-carbonate platform facies. The formation has angular unconformity contacts with both the overlying Neoproterozoic Nantuo Formation and the underlying Paleoproterozoic Huanglianghe Formation complex. Detrital zircons from metafine sandstones of the lower Wujiatai Formation have ages ranging from 3377–1828 Ma, with the youngest zircons dating to about 1828 Ma. In addition, whole-rock Pb-Pb isochron ages from dolostones in the upper Wujiatai Formation yield an age of 1718±230 Ma. These dates constrain the depositional age of the Wujiatai Formation between 1800 Ma and 1600 Ma. These are the earliest Mesoproterozoic sedimentary records reported in the Kongling region, and fill the gaps in Early Mesoproterozoic stratigraphy in Yangtze Craton. Histograms of detrital zircon ages for the Wujiatai Formation reveal four major peaks at 2039 Ma, 2691 Ma, 2966 Ma and 3377 Ma, which is consistent with the ages of the basement rocks that underlie the center of Yangtze Craton, indicating that sediment provenance is mainly from the Kongling complex. The lower Wujiatai Formation mainly consists of clastic rocks, whereas the upper Wujiatai Formation consists of dolostones. This stratigraphic change implies a deepening sequence in an expanding basin with an initial cratonic rifting tectonic setting, corresponding to the initial breakup of the Columbia super-continent in Yangtze Craton.
Sand production is a crucial problem during the process of extracting natural gas from hydrate reservoirs. To deal with sand-production problems systematically, a sand-production control system (SCS) is first proposed in this paper, specialized for pore-distributed clayey silt hydrate reservoirs. Secondly, a nodal system analysis method (NSAM) is applied to analyze the sand migration process during hydrate exploitation. The SCS is divided into three sub-systems, according to different sand migration mechanisms, and three key scientific problems and advances in SCS research in China Geological Survey are reviewed and analyzed. The maximum formation sanding rate, proper sand-control gravel size, and borehole blockage risk position were provided for clayey hydrate exploitation wells based on the SCS analysis. The SCS sub-systems are closely connected via bilateral coupling, and coordination of the sub-systems is the basis of maintaining formation stability and prolonging the gas production cycle. Therefore, contradictory mitigation measures between sand production and operational systems should be considered preferentially. Some novel and efficient hydrate exploitation methods are needed to completely solve the contradictions caused by sand production.
The migration of multi-wave seismic data is aimed at obtaining the P- and S-wave imaging results of the amplitude preserving. But the P- and S-wave stretching effect produced by the reverse time migration of the elastic wave equation will not only reduce the vertical resolution of the migration results and the amplitude preserving of the large reflection angle. In this paper, the reverse time migration technique of amplitude preserving vector wave-field separating is used. Based on the analysis of the stretch mechanism and the influencing factors of stretch magnitude, the paper gave the stretch correcting factors. Then, realize the stretch correction method at the time that after the reverse extrapolation and before the imaging by solving the problem which is how to calculate the P-wave and Ps-wave propagation directions of imaging points at different times. The stretch correction method can improve the vertical resolution and amplitude fidelity of the imaging results.