The Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB) is one of the most petroliferous basins on the northern margin of the South China Sea. Knowledge of the thermal history of the PRMB is significant for understanding its tectonic evolution and for unraveling its poorly studied source-rock maturation history. Our investigations in this study are based on apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology analysis of 12 cutting samples from 4 boreholes. Both AFT ages and length data suggested that the PRMB has experienced quite complicated thermal evolution. Thermal history modeling results unraveled four successive events of heating separated by three stages of cooling since the early Middle Eocene. The cooling events occurred approximately in the Late Eocene, early Oligocene, and the Late Miocene, possibly attributed to the Zhuqiong II Event, Nanhai Event, and Dongsha Event, respectively. The erosion amount during the first cooling stage is roughly estimated to be about 455–712 m, with an erosion rate of 0.08–0.12 mm/a. The second erosion-driven cooling is stronger than the first one, with an erosion amount of about 747–814 m and an erosion rate between about 0.13–0.21 mm/a. The erosion amount calculated related to the third cooling event varies from 800 m to 3419 m, which is speculative due to the possible influence of the magmatic activity.
As a prerequisite and a guarantee for safe and efficient natural gas hydrates (NGHs) exploitation, it is imperative to effectively determine the mechanical properties of NGHs reservoirs and clarify the law of the change in the mechanical properties with the dissociation of NGHs during NGHs production tests by depressurization. Based on the development of Japan’s two offshore NGHs production tests in vertical wells, this study innovatively proposed a new subsea communication technology—accurate directional connection using a wet-mate connector. This helps to overcome the technical barrier to the communication between the upper and lower completion of offshore wells. Using this new communication technology, this study explored and designed a mechanical monitoring scheme for lower completion (sand screens). This scheme can be used to monitor the tensile stress and radial compressive stress of sand screens caused by NGHs reservoirs in real time, thus promoting the technical development for the rapid assessment and real-time feedback of the in-situ mechanical response of NGHs reservoirs during offshore NGHs production tests by depressurization.
Internal solitary waves (ISWs) contain great energy and have the characteristics of emergency and concealment. To avoid their damage to offshore engineering, a new generation of monitoring and early warning system for ISWs was developed using technologies of double buoys monitoring, intelligent real-time data transmission, and automatic software identification. The system was applied to the second natural gas hydrates (NGHs) production test in the Shenhu Area, South China Sea (SCS) and successfully provided the early warning of ISWs for 173 days (from October 2019 to April 2020). The abrupt changes in the thrust force of the drilling platform under the attack of ISWs were consistent with the early warning information, proving the reliability of this system. A total of 93 ISWs were detected around the drilling platform. Most of them occurred during the spring tides in October–December 2019 and April 2020, while few of them occurred in winter. As suggested by the theoretical model, the full-depth structure of ISWs was a typical current profile of mode-1, and the velocities of wave-induced currents can reach 80 cm/s and 30 cm/s, respectively, in the upper ocean and near the seabed. The ISWs may be primarily generated from the interactions between the topography and semidiurnal tides in the Luzon Strait, and then propagate westward to the drilling platform. This study could serve as an important reference for the early warning of ISWs for offshore engineering construction in the future.
Based on the 16 scenes GF-1 satellite multi-spectral remote sensing images, through the adoption of data processing methods including orthorectification, geometric rectification, data fusion and image mosaic, integrated with field surveys, the remote sensing interpretation signs for the inland wetland types have been built, and the remote sensing survey of inland wetlands in Yadong region has been initiated, with six types of inland wetlands recognized in Yadong region, namely permanent rivers, seasonal rivers, lakes, salt lakes, alpine meadows, and inundated land. The spatial distribution characteristics and the spreading rules of these wetlands have also been revealed. Based on full understanding of the overall characteristics of the inland wetlands in the Yadong region, using the three phases of TM images acquired in 1989, 2003 and 2008 as well as the PMS2 data gathered by GF-1 in 2014, and the wide-range data (WFV3) gathered by GF-1 in 2020. As to the typical salt lakes, a long- time salt lakes transition study was carried out. The results show that the typical salt lakes in Yadong have been shrinking in the past three decades. The average annual shrinkage of Duoqing Co (Co means lake in Tibetan) was stronger than that of Gala Co, which are respective 87.30 hectares (usually short as ha; 1 ha equals to 0.01 km2) /a and 24.20 ha/a; the shrinkage degree of Gala Co was higher than that of Duoqing Co, shrank by 59.27% and 35.73% respectively. Based on the remote sensing survey results and an integrated analysis of the predecessors’ researchers, the reason for the shrinkage of the salt lakes is more inclined to geological factors. Geological process is manifested by a series of extensional faults at the bottom of the lake basin generated from tectonic activities, providing fluid infiltration channels, and inducing the eventual leakage of lake water to the lower strata. The result provides an important instance for understanding the evolution characteristics of wetlands and salt lakes in specific environment of the Tibetan Plateau.
Landsat 8 Oli, ASTER, and Sentinel 2A satellite images processing was used to map geological formations, lineaments and hydrothermal alteration minerals in the Aouli inlier, as a case study to illustrate the application of digital images processing and Geographic Information System (GIS) in geological mapping and mining prospecting. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to the Landsat images allowed good lithological discrimination and contributed to the updating of available geological maps. The Automatic lineament extraction from Sentinel images revealed the main tectonic structures affecting Aouli inlier. The ratio bands (b5+b7)/b6 and the false color composite (b4/b6, b2/b1, b3/b2) allowed the hydrothermal alteration minerals mapping from Aster images. Combined with available geological data and field observations, the satellite derived data were integrated and analyzed in a GIS software to establish mining prospecting guides. The results showed that the anomaly zones are intimately linked to NNE–SSW and NW–SE oriented faults and to highly fractured areas developing argillic and Fe rich alterations. Verified via field survey, this approach was successfully applied to the Aouli inlier to rapidly target potential areas to be explored in the tactical phase. This provides a model for future prospecting efforts for similar mineral deposits in other areas.
To meet the requirements of marine natural gas hydrate exploitation, it is necessary to improve the penetration of completion sand control string in the large curvature borehole. In this study, large curvature test wells were selected to carry out the running test of sand control string with pre-packed screen. Meanwhile, the running simulation was performed by using the Landmark software. The results show that the sand control packer and screen can be run smoothly in the wellbore with a dogleg angle of more than 20°/30 m and keep the structure stable. Additionally, the comprehensive friction coefficient is 0.4, under which and the simulation shows that the sand control string for hydrate exploitation can be run smoothly. These findings have important guiding significance for running the completion sand control string in natural gas hydrate exploitation.
In this contribution, detailed field descriptions together with petrographic and bulk-rock major, trace and rare earth elements (REE) data are used to constrain the origin and geodynamic setting of the mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) recently discovered within the Pan-African Ngaoundal pluton, Adamawa area, central Cameroon. The investigated MMEs are dark-colored with chilled margins, and display medium to coarse-grain igneous textures. The mineral assemblage is either dominated by K-feldspar and carbonate (group I), or by amphibole and plagioclase (group II), though the overall mineral phases made of amphibole, plagioclase, K-feldspar, and biotite are similar to that of their host syenite but in different proportions. The MMEs in Ngaoundal area are foid-gabbro in composition with SiO2 contents ranging between 41.52% and 43.74% and are contiguous with their host granitoids of intermediate composition (SiO2=57.52% to 58.98%). The host granitoid rocks are metaluminous, and belong to the shoshonitic series. Petrographic and geochemical data have revealed that the Ngaoundal MMEs derived from rapid cooling of hot injected lithospheric mantle-derived magma within cooler host granitoids magma and were emplaced in the intraplate geodynamic setting.
The Lomagundi-Jatuli Event (LJE) refers to the significant positive carbon isotope excursion in seawater constituents that occurred immediately after the increase in atmospheric oxygen content during the Paleoproterozoic (2.22‒2.06 Ga). The δ13C values of 46 dolostone samples collected from the Paleoproterozoic Yongjingshao Formation varied in the range of 0.05‰‒4.95‰ (V-PDB; maximum: 4.95‰) in this study, which may be related to the multicellular eukaryotes in the Liangshan Formation in the Yimen Group. They are much higher than the δ13C values of marine carbonates (−1.16‰ on average). The δ13C values of other formations in the Paleoproterozoic Yimen Group are negative. The notable positive carbon isotope anomalies of the Yongjingshao Formation indicate the response to the LJE at the southwestern margin of the Yangtze Block, which is reported for the first time. Furthermore, they are comparable to the δ13C values of carbonates in the Dashiling Formation of the Hutuo Group in the Wutaishan area in the North China Craton, the Wuzhiling Formation of the Songshan Group in the Xiong’er area, Henan Province, and the Dashiqiao Formation of the Liaohe Group in the Guanmenshan area, Liaoning Province. Therefore, it can be further concluded that the LJE is a global event. This study reveals that LJE occurred in Central Yunnan at 2.15‒2.10 Ga, lasting for about 50 Ma. The macro-columnar, bean-shaped, and microfilament fossils and reticular ultramicrofossils of multicellular eukaryotes in this period were discovered in the Liangshan Formation of the Yimen Group. They are the direct cause for the LJE and are also the oldest paleontological fossils ever found. The major events successively occurring in the early stage of the Earth include the Great Oxygenation Event (first occurrence), the global Superior-type banded iron formations (BIFs), the Huronian glaciation, the Great Oxygenation Event (second occurrence), the explosion of multicellular eukaryotes, the positive carbon isotope excursion, and the global anoxic and selenium-rich sedimentary event. The authors think that the North China Craton and the Yangtze Craton were possibly in different tectonic locations of the same continental block during the Proterozoic.
In this work, the authors monitored the formation and dissociation process of methane hydrate in four different rock core samples through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time (T2) and 2D imaging measurement. The result shows that the intensity of T2 spectra and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals gradually decreases in the hydrate formation process, and at the same time, the T2 spectra move toward the left domain as the growth of hydrate in the pores of the sample accelerates the decay rate. The hydrate grows and dissociates preferentially in the purer sandstone samples with larger pore size and higher porosity. Significantly, for the sample with lower porosity and higher argillaceous content, the intensity of the T2 spectra also shows a trend of a great decrease in the hydrate formation process, which means that high-saturation gas hydrate can also be formed in the sample with higher argillaceous content. The changes in MRI of the sample in the process show that the formation and dissociation of methane hydrate can reshape the distribution of water in the pores.
Determining the main controlling factors of earthquake-triggered geohazards is a prerequisite for studying earthquake geohazards and post-disaster emergency response. By studying these factors, the geomorphic and geological factors controlling the nature, condition, and distribution of earthquake-induced geohazards can be analyzed. Such insights facilitate earthquake disaster prediction and emergency response planning. The authors combined field investigations and spatial data analysis to examine geohazards induced by seismic events, examining 10 earthquakes including the Wenchuan, Yushu, Lushan events, to elucidate the main control factors of seismic geohazard. The authors observed that seismic geohazard occurrence is usually affected by many factors, among which active nature of the seismogenic fault, seismic peak ground acceleration (PGA), topographic slope and geomorphic height differences, and distance from the fault zone and river system are the most important. Compared with strike-slip earthquakes, thrust earthquakes induce more high-altitude and high-speed remote landslides, which can cause great harm. Slopes of 0–40° are prone to secondary seismic geohazards, which are mainly concentrated 0–6 km from the river system. Secondary geohazards are not only related to seismogenic fault but also influenced by the associated faults in the earthquake area. The maximum seismic PGA and secondary seismic geohazard number are positively correlated, and the horizontal and vertical ground motions play leading and promoting roles in secondary geohazard formation, respectively. Through our research, the spatial distribution of seismic geohazards is predicted, providing a basis for the formulation of emergency response plans following disasters.
The existing genetic models of the South China Sea (SCS) include an extrusion model of the Indochina Peninsula, a back-arc extension model, and a subduction and dragging model of the Proto-South China Sea (PSCS). However, none of these models has been universally accepted because they do not fully match a large number of geological phenomena and facts. By examining the regional tectonics and integrating them with measured data for the SCS, in this study, a back-arc spreading-sinistral shear model is proposed. It is suggested that the SCS is a back-arc basin formed by northward subduction of the PSCS and its formation was triggered by left-lateral strike-slip motion due to the northward drift of the Philippine Sea Plate. The left-lateral strike-slip fault on the western margin caused by the Indo-Eurasian collision changed the direction of the Southwest Sub-basin’s spreading axis from nearly E–W to NE–SW, and subduction retreat caused the spreading ridge to jump southward. This study summarizes the evolution of the SCS and adjacent regions since the Late Mesozoic.
The Neoproterozoic Sugetbrak Formation in the Aksu area, which is located at the northwest margin of Tarim Block, comprises mafic rocks and provides key records of the evolution of the Rodinia supercontinent. However, the genetic relationship among these mafic rocks exposed in different geographical sections are still unclear. In this study, the petrology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of the mafic rocks exposed in the Aksu-Wushi and Yuermeinark areas have been studied in some detail along three sections. The authors found that the mafic rocks in these three typical sections were mainly composed of pyroxene and plagioclase, containing a small amount of Fe-Ti oxides and with typical diabasic textures. All the mafic rocks in this region also showed similar geochemical compositions. They were characterised by high TiO2 contents (1.47%–3.59%) and low MgO (3.52%–7.88%), K2O (0.12%–1.21%). Large ionic lithophile elements (LILEs) (e.g., Rb, Sr, and Cs) were significantly depleted. Meanwhile, high field strength elements (HFSEs) were relatively enriched. In the samples, light rare earth elements (LREEs) were enriched, while heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) were depleted. Based on the Zr/Nb, Nb/Y, and Zr/TiO2 ratios, the Aksu mafic rocks belong to a series of sub-alkaline and alkaline transitional rocks. The mafic rocks along the three typical sections showed similar initial values of 87Sr/86Sr (ISr) (0.7052–0.7097) and εNd(t) (–0.70 to –5.35), while the Pb isotopic compositions with 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb values of 16.908–17.982, 15.487–15.721, 37.276–38.603, respectively. Most of the samples plot into the area near EM-Ⅰ, indicating that the magma of the mafic rocks might have derived from a relatively enriched mantle with some crustal materials involved. The geochemical element characteristics of most samples showed typical OIB-type geochemical characteristics indicating that the source region had received metasomatism of recycled materials. Combining with the regional geological background and geochemical data, we inferred that the mafic rocks of the Sugetbrak Formation in the Aksu area were formed in an intraplate rift environment. Summarily, based on our study, the mafic rocks of the Sugetbrak Formation in the Aksu area were derived from a common enriched mantle source, and they were product of a magmatic event during the rift development period caused by the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent.
By the end of 2020, 83 silver deposits (or ore occurrences), including four super-large-scale deposits, nine large large-scale deposits, 33 medium-scale deposits and 37 small-scale deposits or ore occurrences, have been proved. The amount of silver metal exceeds 86000 t with average grade of 100 g/t, which makes Daxing’anling region one of the the most important silver ore belt in China. However, the metallogenic characteristics and metallogenesis need to be clarified. The silver deposits in the study area are classified into three main types, which are magmatic hydrothermal vein type, continental volcano-subvolcanic type and skarn type, respectively. The super large deposits include the Shuangjianzishan deposit (silver metal amount of 15214 t with average grade of 138 g/t), the Baiyinchagandongshan deposit (silver metal amount of 9446 t with average grade of 187 g/t), the Huaobaote deposit (silver metal amount of 6852 t with average grade of 170 g/t), and the Fuxingtun deposit (silver metal amount of 5240 t with average grade of 196 g/t). The silver deposits are mainly distributed in the central and south of the Daxing’anling area, and mainly formed in the Yanshanian period. The silver polymetallic deposits in the Daxinganling area are significantly controlled by regional faults and the junction zone of volcanic rock basins and their margins. The north-east trending deep faults are the most important ore-controlling structures in this area. The distribution of silver polymetallic deposits along the main faults is obvious, and the intersection area of multiple groups of faults often form important mine catchments. The Permian is the most important ore-bearing formation in this area, but some important silver polymetallic deposits occur in Mesozoic volcanic basins or pre-Mesozoic strata. The magmatic rocks related to mineralization are mainly intermediate acidic or acidic intrusions, intermediate acidic lavas, pyroclastic rocks, and small intrusions of ultra-shallow or shallow facies of the Yanshanian Period. The mineralization element combination is mainly determined by the elemental geochemical background of surrounding rocks or source layers. In addition, the type of deposit, the distance from the mineralization center, and the degree of differentiation of ore-forming rock mass are also important influence factors. The article analyzes the prospecting prospects of each silver deposit type in the study area, discusses the relationship between mineralization center and deep prospecting, and proposes that porphyry silver deposits should be paid attention to. In the prospecting and exploration of silver deposits, comprehensive evaluation and multi-target prospecting need to be strengthened because silver can coexist or be associated with a variety of metals.
The eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in NE China is a key area for investigating continental growth. However, the complexity of its Paleozoic geological history has meant that the tectonic development of this belt is not fully understood. NE China is composed of the Erguna and Jiamusi blocks in the northern and eastern parts and the Xing'an and Songliao–Xilinhot accretionary terranes in the central and southern parts. The Erguna and Jiamusi blocks have Precambrian basements with Siberia and Gondwana affinities, respectively. In contrast, the Xing'an and Songliao–Xilinhot accretionary terranes were formed via subduction and collision processes. These blocks and terranes were separated by the Xinlin–Xiguitu, Heilongjiang, Nenjiang, and Solonker oceans from north to south, and these oceans closed during the Cambrian (ca. 500 Ma), Late Silurian (ca. 420 Ma), early Late Carboniferous (ca. 320 Ma), and Late Permian to Middle Triassic (260–240 Ma), respectively, forming the Xinlin–Xiguitu, Mudanjiang–Yilan, Hegenshan–Heihe, Solonker–Linxi, and Changchun–Yanji suture zones. Two oceanic tectonic cycles took place in the eastern Paleo–Asian Ocean (PAO), namely, the Early Paleozoic cycle involving the Xinlin–Xiguitu and Heilongjiang oceans and the late Paleozoic cycle involving the Nenjiang–Solonker oceans. The Paleozoic tectonic pattern of the eastern CAOB generally shows structural features that trend east–west. The timing of accretion and collision events of the eastern CAOB during the Paleozoic youngs progressively from north to south. The branch ocean basins of the eastern PAO closed from west to east in a scissor-like manner. A bi-directional subduction regime dominated during the narrowing and closure process of the eastern PAO, which led to “soft collision” of tectonic units on each side, forming huge accretionary mountain belts in central Asia.
The Jiama porphyry copper deposit in Tibet is one of the proven ultra-large-scale copper deposits in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at present, with the reserves of geological resources equivalent to nearly 20×106 t. However, it features wavy and steep terrain, leading to extremely difficult field operation and heavy interference. This study attempts to determine the effects of the tensor controlled-source audio-magnetotellurics (CSAMT) with high-power orthogonal signal sources (also referred to as the high-power tensor CSAMT) when it is applied to the deep geophysical exploration in plateaus with complex terrain and mining areas with strong interference. The test results show that the high current provided by the high-power tensor CSAMT not only greatly improved the signal-to-noise ratio but also guaranteed that effective signals were received in the case of a long transmitter-receiver distance. Meanwhile, the tensor data better described the anisotropy of deep geologic bodies. In addition, the tests also show that when the transmitting current reaches 60 A, it is still guaranteed that strong enough signals can be received in the case of the transmitter-receiver distance of about 25 km, sounding curves show no near field effect, and effective exploration depth can reach 3 km. The 2D inversion results are roughly consistent with drilling results, indicating that the high-power tensor CSAMT can be used to achieve nearly actual characteristics of underground electrical structures. Therefore, this method has great potential for application in deep geophysical exploration in plateaus and mining areas with complex terrain and strong interference, respectively. This study not only serves as important guidance on the prospecting in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau but also can be used as positive references for deep mineral exploration in other areas.
Ankerite dolomite is found in well Xiyong 2 and well Xike 1 in the Xisha Islands, China. The former is located in the shallow-middle layer and the latter is located in the middle and deep layers, with a distribution of more than 600 m. Ankerite dolomite has characteristic peaks of typical ankerite dolomite mineral spectrum: d=2.9060–2.9063. Based on the existence of the ankerite dolomite cores of the two wells, the dolomite cores are described by the microscopic characteristics of the physical samples. The petrology analysis of the ankerite dolomite is carried out, and the study involved two wells of the Xisha Islands, Ankerite dolomite X-ray powder diffraction, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy petrography. The results show that the Miocene ankerite dolomite core in well Xiyong 2 is dominated by bioclastic dolomite, and the dolomite crystals are powder–fine-grained; the content of ankerite dolomite is high in some layers, and the crystal is microcrystalline– powdered crystal structure; The types of ankerite dolomite in well Xike 1 are mostly microcrystalline, silty crystal reef dolomite, biological dolomite and bioclastic dolomite. Among them, there are bioclastics and powder crystals. Reef dolomites are the most common, and microcrystalline and siliceous rocks retain more or less the microcrystalline structure, granular structure or residual structure of the reef structure of the original matrix; and the dolomite ordering values of the two are medium.