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Review Articles
Biophysical warming patterns of an open-top chamber and its short-term influence on a Phragmites wetland ecosystem in China
Xue-yang Yu, Si-yuan Ye, Li-xin Pei, Liu-juan Xie, Ken W. Krauss, Samantha K. Chapman, Hans Brix
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022064
[Abstract](983) [FullText HTML] (345) [PDF 187KB](29)
Passive-warming, open-top chambers (OTCs) are widely applied for studying the effects of future climate warming on coastal wetlands. In this study, a set of six OTCs were established at a Phragmites wetland located in the Yellow River Delta of Dongying City, China. With data collected through online transmission and in-situ sensors, the attributes and patterns of realized OTCs warming are demonstrated. The authors also quantified the preliminary influence of experimental chamber warming on plant traits. OTCs produced an elevated average air temperature of 0.8°C (relative to controls) during the growing season (June to October) of 2018, and soil temperatures actually decreased by 0.54°C at a depth of 5 cm and 0.46°C at a depth of 30 cm in the OTCs. Variations in diel patterns of warming depend greatly on the heat sources of incoming radiation in the daytime versus soil heat flux at night. Warming effects were often larger during instantaneous analyses and influenced OTCs air temperatures from −2.5°C to 8.3°C dependent on various meteorological conditions at any given time, ranging from cooling influences from vertical heat exchange and vegetation to radiation-associated warming. Night-time temperature depressions in the OTCs were due to the low turbulence inside OTCs and changes in surface soil-atmosphere heat transfer. Plant shoot density, basal diameter, and biomass of Phragmites decreased by 23.2%, 6.3%, and 34.0%, respectively, under experimental warming versus controls, and plant height increased by 4.3%, reflecting less carbon allocation to stem structures as plants in the OTCs experienced simultaneous wind buffering. While these passive-warming OTCs created the desired warming effects both to the atmosphere and soils, pest damages on the plant leaves and lodging within the OTCs were extensive and serious, creating the need to consider control options for these chambers and the replicated OTCs studies underway in other Chinese Phragmites marshes (Panjin and Yancheng).
Original Article
Original Articles
Relationship between spatio-temporal evolution of soil pH and geological environment/surface cover in the eastern Nenjiang River Basin of northeastern China during the past 30 years
Guo-dong Liu, Ming-hui Wei, Ze Yang, Hong-ye Xiao, Yi-he Zhang, Na-na Fang
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022062
[Abstract](1075) [FullText HTML] (480) [PDF 6323KB](14)
To illuminate the spatio-temporal variation characteristics and geochemical driving mechanism of soil pH in the Nenjiang River Basin, the National Multi-objective Regional Geochemical Survey data of topsoil, the Second National Soil Survey data and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were analyzed. The areas of neutral and alkaline soil decreased by 21100 km2 and 30500 km2, respectively, while that of strongly alkaline, extremely alkaline, and strongly acidic soil increased by 19600 km2, 18200 km2, and 15500 km2, respectively, during the past 30 years. NDVI decreased with the increase of soil pH when soil pH > 8.0, and it was reversed when soil pH < 5.0. There were significant differences in soil pH with various surface cover types, which showed an ascending order: Arbor < reed < maize < rice < high and medium-covered meadow < low-covered meadow < Puccinellia. The weathering products of minerals rich in K2O, Na2O, CaO, and MgO entered into the low plain and were enriched in different parts by water transportation and lake deposition, while Fe and Al remained in the low hilly areas, which was the geochemical driving mechanism. The results of this study will provide scientific basis for making scientific and rational decisions on soil acidification and salinization.
Microbial community composition and environmental response characteristics of typical brackish groundwater in North China Plain
Huai-sheng Zhang, Wu-tian Cai, Feng Guo, Chao Bian, Fu-dong Liu, Lei Zhang, Jin-wei Liu, Miao Zhao
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022073
[Abstract](931) [FullText HTML] (608) [PDF 1277KB](8)
To reveal the microbial community composition of regional shallow porous brackish groundwater and its response characteristics to groundwater environment, the first and second aquifers in Taocheng District, Hengshui City were selected, and 10 groundwater source samples were collected for hydrochemical analysis and microbial 16S RNA gene V4V5 regional sequencing. The results showed that the shallow brackish groundwater in the study area is weakly alkaline and has high ion content. The hydrochemical types are SO4·Cl-Na·Mg type and HCO3·Cl-Na·Mg type as a whole. The spatial zonation of the abundance and diversity of groundwater microorganisms is obvious. The number of endemic bacteria in groundwater from upstream, midstream to downstream is 11, 135 and 22 respectively, with a total of 22 bacteria. Proteobacteria is the most dominant in groundwater level (38.82%86.88%), and there are obvious differences in different sections. At the genus level, the main dominant species in each group and sample are Pseudomonas and Hydrogenophaga. In terms of composition difference, Pseudohongiella, Pseudorhodobacter and Limnohabitans are the representatives of UR, MR and LR. On the whole, the composition of flora in groundwater in the study area is sensitive and closely related to hydrochemical processes. Species abundance is affected by alkaline and high salinity environmental indicators, while species diversity is related to depth and dissolved oxygen in weak reduction environment.
Lateral bearing characteristics of subsea wellh ead assembly in the hydrate trial production engineering
Jing Zeng, Wen-wei Xie, Bei-bei Kou, Jing-an Lu, Xing-chen Li, De-jun Cai, Hao-xian Shi, Kei-wei Zhang, Hua-qing Liu, Jin Li, Bo Li
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022057
[Abstract](1094) [FullText HTML] (846) [PDF 6679KB](16)
Conductor and suction anchor are the key equipment providing bearing capacity in the field of deep-water drilling or offshore engineering, which have the advantages of high operation efficiency and short construction period. In order to drill a horizontal well in the shallow hydrate reservoir in the deep water, the suction anchor wellhead assembly is employed to undertake the main vertical bearing capacity in the second round of hydrate trial production project, so as to reduce the conductor running depth and heighten the kick-off point position. However, the deformation law of the deep-water suction anchor wellhead assembly under the moving load of the riser is not clear, and it is necessary to understand the lateral bearing characteristics to guide the design of its structural scheme. Based on 3D solid finite element method, the solid finite element model of the suction anchor wellhead assembly is established. In the model, the seabed soil is divided into seven layers, the contact between the wellhead assembly and the soil is simulated, and the vertical load and bending moment are applied to the wellhead node to simulate the riser movement when working in the deep water. The lateral bearing stability of conventional wellhead assembly and suction anchor wellhead assembly under the influence of wellhead load is discussed. The analysis results show that the bending moment is the main factor affecting the lateral deformation of the wellhead string; the anti-bending performance from increasing the outer conductor diameter is better than that from increasing the conductor wall thickness; for the subsea wellhead, the suction anchor obviously improves the lateral bearing capacity and reduces the lateral deformation. The conduct of the suction anchor wellhead assembly still needs to be lowered to a certain depth that below the maximum disturbed depth to ensure the lateral bearing stability, Thus, a method for the minimum conductor running depth for the suction anchor wellhead assembly is developed. The field implementations show that compared with the first round of hydrate trial production project, the conductor running depth is increased by 9.42 m, and there is no risk of wellhead overturning during the trial production. The method for determining the minimum conductor running depth in this paper is feasible and will still play an important role in the subsequent hydrate exploration and development.
Melt extraction and mineralization: A case study from the Shuangjianzishan supergiant Ag-Pb-Zn deposit (208 Mt), Inner Mongolia, NE China
Meng Dai, Guang-sheng Yan, Yong-sheng Li, Wen-bin Jia, Fan-yu Qi, Xing Ju
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022044
[Abstract](1196) [FullText HTML] (1150) [PDF 6268KB](12)
The supergiant Shuangjianzishan (SJZ) Ag-Pb-Zn deposit is in the southern segment of the Great Hinggan Range (SGHR), Northeast China. Previous studies suggest the ore-forming material and fluid originated from the magmatic system, and the mineralization age was consistent with the diagenetic age. However, the relationship between granitic magmatism and mineralization is still unclear in the SJZ. In this study, C-H-O-He-Ar and in-situ S-Pb isotope analyses were conducted to determine the sources of ore-forming fluids and materials, which were combing with geochemistry data of SJZ granitoids from previous studies to constrain the relationship between the magmatism and the mineralization. The C-H-O-He-Ar-S-Pb isotopic compositions suggested the SJZ ore-forming material and fluids were derived from a magmatic source, which has mixed a small amount of mantle-derived materials. In addition, the disseminated sulfide form the syenogranite has comparable S-Pb isotopic composition with the sulfide minerals from ore veins, suggesting the generation of the SJZ ore-forming fluids has a close relationship with the syenogranite magmatism. Combing with the geochemical characters of the syenogranite, the authors proposed that the mantle-derived fingerprint of the SJZ ore-forming fluid might be caused by the syenogranite magma derived form partial melting of the juvenile lower crust, and the syenogranite melt extraction further concentrated the fertilized fluids, which is crucial to mineralization of the SJZ deposit.
Tectonic-thermal history and hydrocarbon potential of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea: Insights from borehole apatite fission-track thermochronology
Xiao-yin Tang, Shu-chun Yang, Sheng-biao Hu
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022055
[Abstract](1582) [FullText HTML] (1177) [PDF 2650KB](24)
The Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB) is one of the most petroliferous basins on the northern margin of the South China Sea. Knowledge of the thermal history of the PRMB is significant for understanding its tectonic evolution and for unraveling its poorly studied source-rock maturation history. Our investigations in this study are based on apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology analysis of 12 cutting samples from 4 boreholes. Both AFT ages and length data suggested that the PRMB has experienced quite complicated thermal evolution. Thermal history modeling results unraveled four successive events of heating separated by three stages of cooling since the early Middle Eocene. The cooling events occurred approximately in the Late Eocene, early Oligocene, and the Late Miocene, possibly attributed to the Zhuqiong II Event, Nanhai Event, and Dongsha Event, respectively. The erosion amount during the first cooling stage is roughly estimated to be about 455–712 m, with an erosion rate of 0.08–0.12 mm/a. The second erosion-driven cooling is stronger than the first one, with an erosion amount of about 747–814 m and an erosion rate between about 0.13–0.21 mm/a. The erosion amount calculated related to the third cooling event varies from 800 m to 3419 m, which is speculative due to the possible influence of the magmatic activity.
Design and feasibility analysis of a new completion monitoring technical scheme for natural gas hydrate production tests
Qiu-ping Lu, Yan-jiang Yu, Wen-weiXie, Jin-qiang Liang, Jing-an Lu, Ben-chong Xu, Hao-xian Shi, Hao-yu Yu, Ru-lei Qin, Xing-chen Li, Bin Li
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022045
[Abstract](1897) [FullText HTML] (1455) [PDF 3570KB](14)
As a prerequisite and a guarantee for safe and efficient natural gas hydrates (NGHs) exploitation, it is imperative to effectively determine the mechanical properties of NGHs reservoirs and clarify the law of the change in the mechanical properties with the dissociation of NGHs during NGHs production tests by depressurization. Based on the development of Japan’s two offshore NGHs production tests in vertical wells, this study innovatively proposed a new subsea communication technology—accurate directional connection using a wet-mate connector. This helps to overcome the technical barrier to the communication between the upper and lower completion of offshore wells. Using this new communication technology, this study explored and designed a mechanical monitoring scheme for lower completion (sand screens). This scheme can be used to monitor the tensile stress and radial compressive stress of sand screens caused by NGHs reservoirs in real time, thus promoting the technical development for the rapid assessment and real-time feedback of the in-situ mechanical response of NGHs reservoirs during offshore NGHs production tests by depressurization.
Application of the monitoring and early warning system for internal solitary waves: Take the second natural gas hydrates production test in the South China Sea as an example
Dan-yi Su, Bin-bin Guo, Qian-yong Liang, Chu-jin Liang, Fei-long Lin, Su-meng Jiang, Yi-fei Dong, Xue-min Wu
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022043
[Abstract](2563) [FullText HTML] (1664) [PDF 3014KB](23)
Internal solitary waves (ISWs) contain great energy and have the characteristics of emergency and concealment. To avoid their damage to offshore engineering, a new generation of monitoring and early warning system for ISWs was developed using technologies of double buoys monitoring, intelligent real-time data transmission, and automatic software identification. The system was applied to the second natural gas hydrates (NGHs) production test in the Shenhu Area, South China Sea (SCS) and successfully provided the early warning of ISWs for 173 days (from October 2019 to April 2020). The abrupt changes in the thrust force of the drilling platform under the attack of ISWs were consistent with the early warning information, proving the reliability of this system. A total of 93 ISWs were detected around the drilling platform. Most of them occurred during the spring tides in October–December 2019 and April 2020, while few of them occurred in winter. As suggested by the theoretical model, the full-depth structure of ISWs was a typical current profile of mode-1, and the velocities of wave-induced currents can reach 80 cm/s and 30 cm/s, respectively, in the upper ocean and near the seabed. The ISWs may be primarily generated from the interactions between the topography and semidiurnal tides in the Luzon Strait, and then propagate westward to the drilling platform. This study could serve as an important reference for the early warning of ISWs for offshore engineering construction in the future.
Microscopic Characteristics of the Ankerite dolomite in Xiyong-2 well and Xike-1 well, Xisha Islands, China
Meng Tao, Hong Xu, Tong-qiang Shi, Hai-yang Zhang, Wei-wei Zhang, Qin Na, Zhao-peng Ji, Shou-heng Zhang, Da-peng Su
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2018088
[Abstract](2819) [FullText HTML] (1634) [PDF 2716KB](9)
Ankerite dolomite is found in well Xiyong 2 and well Xike 1 in the Xisha Islands, China. The former is located in the shallow-middle layer and the latter is located in the middle and deep layers, with a distribution of more than 600 m. Ankerite dolomite has characteristic peaks of typical ankerite dolomite mineral spectrum: d=2.9060–2.9063. Based on the existence of the ankerite dolomite cores of the two wells, the dolomite cores are described by the microscopic characteristics of the physical samples. The petrology analysis of the ankerite dolomite is carried out, and the study involved two wells of the Xisha Islands, Ankerite dolomite X-ray powder diffraction, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy petrography. The results show that the Miocene ankerite dolomite core in well Xiyong 2 is dominated by bioclastic dolomite, and the dolomite crystals are powder–fine-grained; the content of ankerite dolomite is high in some layers, and the crystal is microcrystalline– powdered crystal structure; The types of ankerite dolomite in well Xike 1 are mostly microcrystalline, silty crystal reef dolomite, biological dolomite and bioclastic dolomite. Among them, there are bioclastics and powder crystals. Reef dolomites are the most common, and microcrystalline and siliceous rocks retain more or less the microcrystalline structure, granular structure or residual structure of the reef structure of the original matrix; and the dolomite ordering values of the two are medium.
Source, migration, distribution, toxicological effects and remediation technologies of arsenic in groundwater in China
Zhen Wang, Hua-ming Guo, Hai-yan Liu, Wei-min Zhang
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022086
[Abstract](740) [FullText HTML] (365) [PDF 2977KB](4)
Groundwater with high arsenic (As) content seriously threatens human life and health. If drinking high-As groundwater for a long time, excessive intake of arsenic will lead to various pathological changes such as skin cancer, liver cancer, and kidney cancer. High-As groundwater has become one of the most serious environmental geological problems in China and even the international community. This paper aims to systematically summarize the sources, migration, distribution, hazard assessment, and treatment techniques of arsenic in natural groundwater in China based on a large number of literature surveys. High-As groundwater in China is mainly distributed in the inland basins in arid and semi-arid environments and the alluvial and lacustrine aquifers in river deltas in humid environments, which are in neutral to weakly alkaline and strongly reducing environments. The content of As in groundwater varies widely, and As(III) is the main form. The main mechanism of the formation of high-As groundwater in China is the reduced dissolution of Fe and Mn oxides under the action of organic matter and primary microorganisms, alkaline environment, intense evaporation and concentration, long-term water-rock interaction, and slow groundwater velocity, which promote the continuous migration and enrichment of As in groundwater. There are obvious differences in the toxicity of different forms of As. The toxic of As(III) is far more than As(V), which is considered to be more toxic than methyl arsenate (MMA) and dimethyl arsenate (DMA). Inorganic arsenic entering the body is metabolized through a combination of methylation (detoxification) and reduction (activation) and catalyzed by a series of methyltransferases and reductases. At present, remediation methods for high-As groundwater mainly include ion exchange technology, membrane filtration technology, biological treatment technology, nanocomposite adsorption technology, electrochemical technology, and so on. All the above remediation methods still have certain limitations, and it is urgent to develop treatment materials and technical means with stronger As removal performance and sustainability. With the joint efforts of scientists and governments of various countries in the future, this worldwide problem of drinking-water As poisoning will be solved as soon as possible. This paper systematically summarizes and discusses the hot research results of natural high-As groundwater, which could provide a reference for the related research of high-As groundwater in China and even the world.
Invited Review
Short Communications (Research Advances)
Cassiterite U-Pb age report in the Bawapin tin deposit, Tanintharyi Region, Southern Myanmar
Song-yang Wu, Shu-sheng Liu, Yong-fei Yang, Bin Zhang, Hui-min Liang, Hong Zhang, Xiang-ting Zeng, Fei Nie
, Available online  , doi: 10.31035/cg2022066
[Abstract](901) [FullText HTML] (766) [PDF 2494KB](18)